The TORC1-activated proteins, p70S6K and GRB10, regulate IL-4 signaling and M2 macrophage polarization by modulating phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-2

Kristi J. Warren, Xi Fang, Nagaraj M. Gowda, Joshua J. Thompson, Nicola Mary Heller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Lung M2 macrophages are regulators of airway inflammation, associated with poor lung function in allergic asthma. Previously, we demonstrated that IL-4-induced M2 gene expression correlated with tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) in macrophages. We hypothesized that negative regulation of IRS-2 activity after IL-4 stimulation is dependent upon serine phosphorylation of IRS-2. Herein, we describe an inverse relationship between tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr(P)) and serine phosphorylation (Ser(P)) of IRS-2 after IL-4 stimulation. Inhibiting serine phosphatase activity increased Ser(P)-IRS-2 and decreased Tyr(P)-IRS-2 leading to reduced M2 gene expression (CD200R, CCL22, MMP12, and TGM2). We found that inhibition of p70S6K, downstream of TORC1, resulted in diminished Ser(P)-IRS-2 and prolonged Tyr(P)-IRS-2 as well. Inhibition of p70S6K increased expression of CD200R and CCL22 indicating that p70S6K negatively regulates some, but not all, human M2 genes. Knocking down GRB10, another negative regulatory protein downstream of TORC1, enhanced both Tyr(P)-IRS-2 and increased expression of all four M2 genes. Furthermore, GRB10 associated with IRS-2, NEDD4.2 (an E3-ubiquitin ligase), IL-4Rα, and γC after IL-4 stimulation. Both IL-4Rα and γC were ubiquitinated after 30 min of IL-4 treatment, suggesting that GRB10 may regulate degradation of the IL-4 receptor-signaling complex through interactions with NEDD4.2. Taken together, these data highlight two novel regulatory proteins that could be therapeutically manipulated to limit IL-4-induced IRS-2 signaling and polarization of M2 macrophages in allergic inflammation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)24922-24930
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume291
Issue number48
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 25 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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