The three-dimensional structure of NAD(P)H: quinone reductase a flavoprotein involved in cancer chemoprotection and chemotherapy: Mechanism of the two-electron reduction

Rongbao Li, Mario Antonio Bianchet, Paul Talalay, Mario L Amzel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Quinone reductase [NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.99.2], also called DT diaphorase, is a homodimeric FAD-containing enzyme that catalyzes obligatory NAD(P)H-dependent two-electron reductions of quinones and protects cells against the toxic and neoplastic effects of free radicals and reactive oxygen species arising from one-electron reductions. These two-electron reductions participate in the reductive bioactivation of cancer chemotherapeutic agents such as mitomycin C in tumor cells. Thus, surprisingly, the same enzymatic reaction that protects normal cells activates cytotoxic drugs used in cancer chemotherapy. The 2.1-Å crystal structure of rat liver quinone reductase reveals that the folding of a portion of each monomer is similar to that of flavodoxin, a bacterial FMN-containing protein. Two additional portions of the polypeptide chains are involved in dimerization and in formation of the two identical catalytic sites to which both monomers contribute. The crystallographic structures of two FAD-containing enzyme complexes (one containing NADP+, the other containing duroquinone) suggest that direct hydride transfers from NAD(P)H to FAD and from FADH2 to the quinone [which occupies the site vacated by NAD(P)H] provide a simple rationale for the obligatory two-electron reductions involving a ping-pong mechanism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8846-8850
Number of pages5
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume92
Issue number19
StatePublished - Sep 12 1995

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NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone)
Flavoproteins
NAD
Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide
Electrons
Drug Therapy
Neoplasms
Flavodoxin
Flavin Mononucleotide
Quinones
Poisons
Dimerization
Mitomycin
Enzymes
NADP
Free Radicals
Reactive Oxygen Species
Catalytic Domain
Peptides
Liver

Keywords

  • Flavin
  • X-ray diffraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General
  • Genetics

Cite this

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title = "The three-dimensional structure of NAD(P)H: quinone reductase a flavoprotein involved in cancer chemoprotection and chemotherapy: Mechanism of the two-electron reduction",
abstract = "Quinone reductase [NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.99.2], also called DT diaphorase, is a homodimeric FAD-containing enzyme that catalyzes obligatory NAD(P)H-dependent two-electron reductions of quinones and protects cells against the toxic and neoplastic effects of free radicals and reactive oxygen species arising from one-electron reductions. These two-electron reductions participate in the reductive bioactivation of cancer chemotherapeutic agents such as mitomycin C in tumor cells. Thus, surprisingly, the same enzymatic reaction that protects normal cells activates cytotoxic drugs used in cancer chemotherapy. The 2.1-{\AA} crystal structure of rat liver quinone reductase reveals that the folding of a portion of each monomer is similar to that of flavodoxin, a bacterial FMN-containing protein. Two additional portions of the polypeptide chains are involved in dimerization and in formation of the two identical catalytic sites to which both monomers contribute. The crystallographic structures of two FAD-containing enzyme complexes (one containing NADP+, the other containing duroquinone) suggest that direct hydride transfers from NAD(P)H to FAD and from FADH2 to the quinone [which occupies the site vacated by NAD(P)H] provide a simple rationale for the obligatory two-electron reductions involving a ping-pong mechanism.",
keywords = "Flavin, X-ray diffraction",
author = "Rongbao Li and Bianchet, {Mario Antonio} and Paul Talalay and Amzel, {Mario L}",
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T1 - The three-dimensional structure of NAD(P)H

T2 - quinone reductase a flavoprotein involved in cancer chemoprotection and chemotherapy: Mechanism of the two-electron reduction

AU - Li, Rongbao

AU - Bianchet, Mario Antonio

AU - Talalay, Paul

AU - Amzel, Mario L

PY - 1995/9/12

Y1 - 1995/9/12

N2 - Quinone reductase [NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.99.2], also called DT diaphorase, is a homodimeric FAD-containing enzyme that catalyzes obligatory NAD(P)H-dependent two-electron reductions of quinones and protects cells against the toxic and neoplastic effects of free radicals and reactive oxygen species arising from one-electron reductions. These two-electron reductions participate in the reductive bioactivation of cancer chemotherapeutic agents such as mitomycin C in tumor cells. Thus, surprisingly, the same enzymatic reaction that protects normal cells activates cytotoxic drugs used in cancer chemotherapy. The 2.1-Å crystal structure of rat liver quinone reductase reveals that the folding of a portion of each monomer is similar to that of flavodoxin, a bacterial FMN-containing protein. Two additional portions of the polypeptide chains are involved in dimerization and in formation of the two identical catalytic sites to which both monomers contribute. The crystallographic structures of two FAD-containing enzyme complexes (one containing NADP+, the other containing duroquinone) suggest that direct hydride transfers from NAD(P)H to FAD and from FADH2 to the quinone [which occupies the site vacated by NAD(P)H] provide a simple rationale for the obligatory two-electron reductions involving a ping-pong mechanism.

AB - Quinone reductase [NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.99.2], also called DT diaphorase, is a homodimeric FAD-containing enzyme that catalyzes obligatory NAD(P)H-dependent two-electron reductions of quinones and protects cells against the toxic and neoplastic effects of free radicals and reactive oxygen species arising from one-electron reductions. These two-electron reductions participate in the reductive bioactivation of cancer chemotherapeutic agents such as mitomycin C in tumor cells. Thus, surprisingly, the same enzymatic reaction that protects normal cells activates cytotoxic drugs used in cancer chemotherapy. The 2.1-Å crystal structure of rat liver quinone reductase reveals that the folding of a portion of each monomer is similar to that of flavodoxin, a bacterial FMN-containing protein. Two additional portions of the polypeptide chains are involved in dimerization and in formation of the two identical catalytic sites to which both monomers contribute. The crystallographic structures of two FAD-containing enzyme complexes (one containing NADP+, the other containing duroquinone) suggest that direct hydride transfers from NAD(P)H to FAD and from FADH2 to the quinone [which occupies the site vacated by NAD(P)H] provide a simple rationale for the obligatory two-electron reductions involving a ping-pong mechanism.

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