The soluble worm antigens-specific antibodies used as biomarkers of Schistosoma japonicum in a low prevalence and intensity endemic area of Hubei, China

Jianping Zhao, Xiaoping Chen, Xin Long, Nicholas Rafaels, Monica Campbell, Huifang Liang, Bixiang Zhang, Kathleen C. Barnes, Robert G Hamilton, Qian Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The precise diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) infection plays a critical role in achieving the ultimate goal of eliminating schistosomiasis in endemic regions. We evaluated the S. japonicum soluble worm antigen protein (SWAP) specific-IgG, IgG 4 and IgE levels, and evaluated the association between S. japonicum infection and these antibodies in a sample of 837 residents from a S. japonicum-endemic area in Hubei province, China. The anticipants were divided into the Training Set (TS) and Validation Set (VS) based on the chronological order. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed to detect the SWAP-specific antibodies. Three algorithms for identifying S. japonicum infection were generated in the TS and subsequently validated in the VS. The findings were further replicated in an independent cohort from an endemic area for Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) in Brazil. Our results indicated for the first time that S. japonicum-infected individuals had higher levels of SWAP-specific IgG, IgG 4 and IgE, and lower value of the IgE/IgG 4 ratio than uninfected individuals in both the two sets (p < 0.01). Both the infected and uninfected individuals had a high prevalence of seropositivity for IgG. We further showed that the predictive model EGR (IgE/IgG 4 ratio) score performed best in Chinese population (area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) 0.905, sensitivity 82.7%, specificity 84.0% in the TS; AUROC 0.933, sensitivity 87.7%, specificity 89.1% in the VS). Nevertheless, the predictive model IgG 4 score performed best in Brazilian cohort (AUROC 0.788, sensitivity 73.2%, specificity 73.3%). In summary, SWAP-specific IgG could be used as a biomarker for identifying individuals who have been previously exposed to S. japonicum, and furthermore the SWAP-specific IgE/IgG 4 could be used as an immune biomarker for S. japonicum infection in particular in the endemic areas with low prevalence and intensity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)28-34
Number of pages7
JournalActa Tropica
Volume195
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2019

Fingerprint

Schistosoma japonicum
China
biomarkers
Immunoglobulin G
Biomarkers
antigens
Antigens
antibodies
Antibodies
Immunoglobulin E
ROC Curve
proteins
infection
Infection
Proteins
Sensitivity and Specificity
schistosomiasis
Schistosoma mansoni
seroprevalence
Schistosomiasis

Keywords

  • Biomarker
  • IgE
  • IgE/IgG ratio
  • IgG
  • IgG
  • Schisosomiasis japonica

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • veterinary (miscalleneous)
  • Insect Science
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

The soluble worm antigens-specific antibodies used as biomarkers of Schistosoma japonicum in a low prevalence and intensity endemic area of Hubei, China. / Zhao, Jianping; Chen, Xiaoping; Long, Xin; Rafaels, Nicholas; Campbell, Monica; Liang, Huifang; Zhang, Bixiang; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Hamilton, Robert G; Chen, Qian.

In: Acta Tropica, Vol. 195, 01.07.2019, p. 28-34.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zhao, Jianping ; Chen, Xiaoping ; Long, Xin ; Rafaels, Nicholas ; Campbell, Monica ; Liang, Huifang ; Zhang, Bixiang ; Barnes, Kathleen C. ; Hamilton, Robert G ; Chen, Qian. / The soluble worm antigens-specific antibodies used as biomarkers of Schistosoma japonicum in a low prevalence and intensity endemic area of Hubei, China. In: Acta Tropica. 2019 ; Vol. 195. pp. 28-34.
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abstract = "The precise diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) infection plays a critical role in achieving the ultimate goal of eliminating schistosomiasis in endemic regions. We evaluated the S. japonicum soluble worm antigen protein (SWAP) specific-IgG, IgG 4 and IgE levels, and evaluated the association between S. japonicum infection and these antibodies in a sample of 837 residents from a S. japonicum-endemic area in Hubei province, China. The anticipants were divided into the Training Set (TS) and Validation Set (VS) based on the chronological order. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed to detect the SWAP-specific antibodies. Three algorithms for identifying S. japonicum infection were generated in the TS and subsequently validated in the VS. The findings were further replicated in an independent cohort from an endemic area for Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) in Brazil. Our results indicated for the first time that S. japonicum-infected individuals had higher levels of SWAP-specific IgG, IgG 4 and IgE, and lower value of the IgE/IgG 4 ratio than uninfected individuals in both the two sets (p < 0.01). Both the infected and uninfected individuals had a high prevalence of seropositivity for IgG. We further showed that the predictive model EGR (IgE/IgG 4 ratio) score performed best in Chinese population (area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) 0.905, sensitivity 82.7{\%}, specificity 84.0{\%} in the TS; AUROC 0.933, sensitivity 87.7{\%}, specificity 89.1{\%} in the VS). Nevertheless, the predictive model IgG 4 score performed best in Brazilian cohort (AUROC 0.788, sensitivity 73.2{\%}, specificity 73.3{\%}). In summary, SWAP-specific IgG could be used as a biomarker for identifying individuals who have been previously exposed to S. japonicum, and furthermore the SWAP-specific IgE/IgG 4 could be used as an immune biomarker for S. japonicum infection in particular in the endemic areas with low prevalence and intensity.",
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AU - Rafaels, Nicholas

AU - Campbell, Monica

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