Context.-Testicular germ cell tumors with lymphovascular invasion (LVI) are staged pT2, and those with spermatic cord involvement are staged pT3. Objective.-To study the clinical significance of LVI within the spermatic cord without direct involvement of the cord soft tissues. Design.-A retrospective, multi-institutional review was performed on testicular GCTs with spermatic cord LVI in the absence of cord soft tissue invasion. Results.-Forty-four germ cell tumors had LVI in the spermatic cord without soft tissue invasion; 37 of 44 patients (84%) had nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT), and 7 (16%) had pure seminomas. Patients with NSGCTs and spermatic cord LVI had worse clinical outcomes compared with patients with pure seminoma and spermatic cord LVI (P .008). We then compared patients with NSGCTs and spermatic cord LVI (n 37) to patients with NSGCTs and LVI limited to the testis (n32). A significantly greater percentage of patients with LVI in the spermatic cord presented with advanced clinical stage (76% versus 50%; P .01). There was no statistically significant difference in disease recurrence/progression or death between patients with spermatic cord LVI and patients with LVI limited to the testis (P .40; P .50). There was no significant difference in the presence of embryonal dominant histology (P .30) or rete testis invasion (P .50) between the 2 groups. More hilar soft tissue invasion was seen in patients with LVI present in the spermatic cord (P .004). Conclusions.-In patients with NSGCTs, LVI in the spermatic cord, without soft tissue invasion, is associated with worse clinical stage at presentation compared with patients with LVI confined to the testis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Medical Laboratory Technology