The Scaffold Immune Microenvironment: Biomaterial-Mediated Immune Polarization in Traumatic and Nontraumatic Applications

Kaitlyn Sadtler, Brian W. Allen, Kenneth Estrellas, Franck Housseau, Drew M. Pardoll, Jennifer H. Elisseeff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The immune system mediates tissue growth and homeostasis and is the first responder to injury or biomaterial implantation. Recently, it has been appreciated that immune cells play a critical role in wound healing and tissue repair and should thus be considered potentially beneficial, particularly in the context of scaffolds for regenerative medicine. In this study, we present a flow cytometric analysis of cellular recruitment to tissue-derived extracellular matrix scaffolds, where we quantitatively describe the infiltration and polarization of several immune subtypes, including macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, monocytes, T cells, and B cells. We define a specific scaffold-associated macrophage (SAM) that expresses CD11b+F4/80+CD11c+/-CD206hiCD86+MHCII+ that are characteristic of an M2-like cell (CD206hi) with high antigen presentation capabilities (MHCII+). Adaptive immune cells tightly regulate the phenotype of a mature SAM. These studies provide a foundation for detailed characterization of the scaffold immune microenvironment of a given biomaterial scaffold to determine the effect of scaffold changes on immune response and subsequent therapeutic outcome of that material.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1044-1053
Number of pages10
JournalTissue Engineering - Part A
Volume23
Issue number19-20
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2017

Keywords

  • T cells
  • biomaterial implant
  • extracellular matrix
  • immune polarization
  • macrophages

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Biochemistry
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering

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