In the United States and in "Westernized" countries, the prevalence of both prostate cancer and prostate inflammation is very high, indicating that the two pathologies could be causally related. Indeed, chronic inflammation is now regarded as an "enabling" characteristic of human cancer. Prostate cancer incidence is thought to be mediated in part by genetics, but also by environmental exposures, including the same exposures that may contribute to the development of prostatic inflammation. As our understanding of the role of inflammation in cancer deepens, it is increasingly apparent that "inflammation" as a whole is a complex entity that does not always play a negative role in cancer etiology. In fact, inflammation can play potentially dichotomous (both pro and antitumorigenic) roles depending on the nature and the cellular makeup of the immune response. This chapter will focus on reviewing the current state of knowledge on the role of innate and adaptive immune cells within the prostate tumor microenvironment and their seemingly complex role in prostate cancer in preventing versus promoting initiation and progression of the disease.