The role of hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor in organ-specific inflammation in the lung and liver: Key concepts and gaps in knowledge regarding molecular mechanisms of acute or immune-mediated liver injury

Sananda Pai, Dolores B. Njoku

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor (HIMF), which is also known as resistin-like molecule α (RELM-α), found in inflammatory zone 1 (FIZZ1), or resistin-like alpha (retlna), is a cysteine-rich secretory protein and cytokine. HIMF has been investigated in the lung as a mediator of pulmonary fibrosis, inflammation and as a marker for alternatively activated macrophages. Although these macrophages have been found to have a role in acute liver injury and acetaminophen toxicity, few studies have investigated the role of HIMF in acute or immune-mediated liver injury. The aim of this focused review is to analyze the literature and examine the effects of HIMF and its human homolog in organ-specific inflammation in the lung and liver. We followed the guidelines set by PRISMA in constructing this review. The relevant checklist items from PRISMA were included. Items related to meta-analysis were excluded because there were no randomized controlled clinical trials. We found that HIMF was increased in most models of acute liver injury and reduced damage from acetaminophen-induced liver injury. We also found strong evidence for HIMF as a marker for alternatively activated macrophages. Our overall risk of bias assessment of all studies included revealed that 80% of manuscripts demonstrated some concerns in the randomization process. We also demonstrated some concerns (54.1%) and high risk (45.9%) of bias in the selection of the reported results. The need for randomization and reduction of bias in the reported results was similarly detected in the studies that focused on HIMF and the liver. In conclusion, we propose that HIMF could be utilized as a marker for M2 macrophages in immune-mediated liver injury. However, we also detected the need for randomized clinical trials and additional experimental and human prospective studies in order to fully comprehend the role of HIMF in acute or immune-mediated liver injury.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2717
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Volume22
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2021

Keywords

  • FIZZ1
  • HIMF
  • Liver
  • RELM-a
  • RELM-b
  • Retnla

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry

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