The role of anatomic pelvic dissection in the successful closure of bladder exstrophy: an aid to success

R. Davis, M. Maruf, E. Dunn, H. DiCarlo, J. P. Gearhart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Introduction: Classic bladder exstrophy is one of the rarest congenital anomalies compatible with life. Surgical treatment of bladder exstrophy has progressed, but the goal of surgery remains a successful primary bladder closure. Several factors have been identified to decrease the risk of failed closure, including appropriate use of osteotomy and adequate postoperative immobilization and analgesia. However, the role of the radical anatomic pelvic dissection, including dissection of the urogenital diaphragm fibers, in a successful closure has not yet been extensively explored. Objective: The objective of this study was go examine the role of radical anatomic pelvic dissection, including dissection of the urogenital diaphragm fibers, in patients with classic bladder exstrophy. Study design: This was a retrospective study based on an institutional database. Methods: A retrospective review from an institutional approved database of more than 1,300 patients with epispadias-exstrophy complex was performed. The inclusion criteria included patients with classic bladder exstrophy with at least one failed bladder closure and a reclosure at the authors' institution with a single senior surgeon. Data collection included demographics, clinical variables, and status of urogenital diaphragm fibers. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, if available, were reviewed with a pediatric radiologist to identify urogenital diaphragm fibers. Results: From the database, 93 patients met inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 74 had urogenital diaphragm fibers completely intact at the time of repeat closure, whereas 19 patients did not. There was no association with age or gender and status of urogenital diaphragm fibers. There was no association with osteotomy, the type of primary bladder closure, surgeon subspecialty, and the status of the urogenital fibers. Fourteen patients had at least two prior closures; surprisingly, 11 of these repeat closure patients still had intact urogenital fibers even after two prior closures. Discussion: The recent development and application of 3D MRI-guided pelvic dissection in a large group of patients led the authors to investigate whether adequate pelvic floor dissection had been accomplished at primary or secondary closure. Several patients had MRI scans performed before repeat closure in which the urogenital diaphragm fibers were identified to be intact on imaging; this was corroborated with surgical findings. Approximately 80% of patients had their urogenital diaphragm fibers completely intact and, therefore, did not have an adequate pelvic dissection during their primary or secondary bladder closure, putting the success of their previous closures at risk. Conclusion: Inadequate pelvic diaphragm dissection, defined as intact urogenital diaphragm fibers, demonstrated in a large group of patients with failed exstrophy closure, may be a decisive factor in bladder closure failure. The use of 3D intra-operative image guidance may aid in a safer and more successful pelvic dissection.[Formula presented]

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)559.e1-559.e7
JournalJournal of pediatric urology
Volume15
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2019

Fingerprint

Bladder Exstrophy
Dissection
Diaphragm
Urinary Bladder
Pelvic Floor
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Databases
Osteotomy
Epispadias
Immobilization
Analgesia

Keywords

  • Bladder closure
  • Bladder exstrophy
  • Pelvic dissection
  • Pelvic floor
  • Urogenital diaphragm

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Urology

Cite this

The role of anatomic pelvic dissection in the successful closure of bladder exstrophy : an aid to success. / Davis, R.; Maruf, M.; Dunn, E.; DiCarlo, H.; Gearhart, J. P.

In: Journal of pediatric urology, Vol. 15, No. 5, 10.2019, p. 559.e1-559.e7.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Introduction: Classic bladder exstrophy is one of the rarest congenital anomalies compatible with life. Surgical treatment of bladder exstrophy has progressed, but the goal of surgery remains a successful primary bladder closure. Several factors have been identified to decrease the risk of failed closure, including appropriate use of osteotomy and adequate postoperative immobilization and analgesia. However, the role of the radical anatomic pelvic dissection, including dissection of the urogenital diaphragm fibers, in a successful closure has not yet been extensively explored. Objective: The objective of this study was go examine the role of radical anatomic pelvic dissection, including dissection of the urogenital diaphragm fibers, in patients with classic bladder exstrophy. Study design: This was a retrospective study based on an institutional database. Methods: A retrospective review from an institutional approved database of more than 1,300 patients with epispadias-exstrophy complex was performed. The inclusion criteria included patients with classic bladder exstrophy with at least one failed bladder closure and a reclosure at the authors' institution with a single senior surgeon. Data collection included demographics, clinical variables, and status of urogenital diaphragm fibers. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, if available, were reviewed with a pediatric radiologist to identify urogenital diaphragm fibers. Results: From the database, 93 patients met inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 74 had urogenital diaphragm fibers completely intact at the time of repeat closure, whereas 19 patients did not. There was no association with age or gender and status of urogenital diaphragm fibers. There was no association with osteotomy, the type of primary bladder closure, surgeon subspecialty, and the status of the urogenital fibers. Fourteen patients had at least two prior closures; surprisingly, 11 of these repeat closure patients still had intact urogenital fibers even after two prior closures. Discussion: The recent development and application of 3D MRI-guided pelvic dissection in a large group of patients led the authors to investigate whether adequate pelvic floor dissection had been accomplished at primary or secondary closure. Several patients had MRI scans performed before repeat closure in which the urogenital diaphragm fibers were identified to be intact on imaging; this was corroborated with surgical findings. Approximately 80{\%} of patients had their urogenital diaphragm fibers completely intact and, therefore, did not have an adequate pelvic dissection during their primary or secondary bladder closure, putting the success of their previous closures at risk. Conclusion: Inadequate pelvic diaphragm dissection, defined as intact urogenital diaphragm fibers, demonstrated in a large group of patients with failed exstrophy closure, may be a decisive factor in bladder closure failure. The use of 3D intra-operative image guidance may aid in a safer and more successful pelvic dissection.[Formula presented]",
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T2 - an aid to success

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AU - Maruf, M.

AU - Dunn, E.

AU - DiCarlo, H.

AU - Gearhart, J. P.

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N2 - Introduction: Classic bladder exstrophy is one of the rarest congenital anomalies compatible with life. Surgical treatment of bladder exstrophy has progressed, but the goal of surgery remains a successful primary bladder closure. Several factors have been identified to decrease the risk of failed closure, including appropriate use of osteotomy and adequate postoperative immobilization and analgesia. However, the role of the radical anatomic pelvic dissection, including dissection of the urogenital diaphragm fibers, in a successful closure has not yet been extensively explored. Objective: The objective of this study was go examine the role of radical anatomic pelvic dissection, including dissection of the urogenital diaphragm fibers, in patients with classic bladder exstrophy. Study design: This was a retrospective study based on an institutional database. Methods: A retrospective review from an institutional approved database of more than 1,300 patients with epispadias-exstrophy complex was performed. The inclusion criteria included patients with classic bladder exstrophy with at least one failed bladder closure and a reclosure at the authors' institution with a single senior surgeon. Data collection included demographics, clinical variables, and status of urogenital diaphragm fibers. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, if available, were reviewed with a pediatric radiologist to identify urogenital diaphragm fibers. Results: From the database, 93 patients met inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 74 had urogenital diaphragm fibers completely intact at the time of repeat closure, whereas 19 patients did not. There was no association with age or gender and status of urogenital diaphragm fibers. There was no association with osteotomy, the type of primary bladder closure, surgeon subspecialty, and the status of the urogenital fibers. Fourteen patients had at least two prior closures; surprisingly, 11 of these repeat closure patients still had intact urogenital fibers even after two prior closures. Discussion: The recent development and application of 3D MRI-guided pelvic dissection in a large group of patients led the authors to investigate whether adequate pelvic floor dissection had been accomplished at primary or secondary closure. Several patients had MRI scans performed before repeat closure in which the urogenital diaphragm fibers were identified to be intact on imaging; this was corroborated with surgical findings. Approximately 80% of patients had their urogenital diaphragm fibers completely intact and, therefore, did not have an adequate pelvic dissection during their primary or secondary bladder closure, putting the success of their previous closures at risk. Conclusion: Inadequate pelvic diaphragm dissection, defined as intact urogenital diaphragm fibers, demonstrated in a large group of patients with failed exstrophy closure, may be a decisive factor in bladder closure failure. The use of 3D intra-operative image guidance may aid in a safer and more successful pelvic dissection.[Formula presented]

AB - Introduction: Classic bladder exstrophy is one of the rarest congenital anomalies compatible with life. Surgical treatment of bladder exstrophy has progressed, but the goal of surgery remains a successful primary bladder closure. Several factors have been identified to decrease the risk of failed closure, including appropriate use of osteotomy and adequate postoperative immobilization and analgesia. However, the role of the radical anatomic pelvic dissection, including dissection of the urogenital diaphragm fibers, in a successful closure has not yet been extensively explored. Objective: The objective of this study was go examine the role of radical anatomic pelvic dissection, including dissection of the urogenital diaphragm fibers, in patients with classic bladder exstrophy. Study design: This was a retrospective study based on an institutional database. Methods: A retrospective review from an institutional approved database of more than 1,300 patients with epispadias-exstrophy complex was performed. The inclusion criteria included patients with classic bladder exstrophy with at least one failed bladder closure and a reclosure at the authors' institution with a single senior surgeon. Data collection included demographics, clinical variables, and status of urogenital diaphragm fibers. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, if available, were reviewed with a pediatric radiologist to identify urogenital diaphragm fibers. Results: From the database, 93 patients met inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 74 had urogenital diaphragm fibers completely intact at the time of repeat closure, whereas 19 patients did not. There was no association with age or gender and status of urogenital diaphragm fibers. There was no association with osteotomy, the type of primary bladder closure, surgeon subspecialty, and the status of the urogenital fibers. Fourteen patients had at least two prior closures; surprisingly, 11 of these repeat closure patients still had intact urogenital fibers even after two prior closures. Discussion: The recent development and application of 3D MRI-guided pelvic dissection in a large group of patients led the authors to investigate whether adequate pelvic floor dissection had been accomplished at primary or secondary closure. Several patients had MRI scans performed before repeat closure in which the urogenital diaphragm fibers were identified to be intact on imaging; this was corroborated with surgical findings. Approximately 80% of patients had their urogenital diaphragm fibers completely intact and, therefore, did not have an adequate pelvic dissection during their primary or secondary bladder closure, putting the success of their previous closures at risk. Conclusion: Inadequate pelvic diaphragm dissection, defined as intact urogenital diaphragm fibers, demonstrated in a large group of patients with failed exstrophy closure, may be a decisive factor in bladder closure failure. The use of 3D intra-operative image guidance may aid in a safer and more successful pelvic dissection.[Formula presented]

KW - Bladder closure

KW - Bladder exstrophy

KW - Pelvic dissection

KW - Pelvic floor

KW - Urogenital diaphragm

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