The robotic ENT microsurgery system: A novel robotic platform for microvascular surgery

Allen L. Feng, Christopher R. Razavi, Pranav Lakshminarayanan, Zaid Ashai, Kevin Olds, Marcin Balicki, Zhen Gooi, Andrew T. Day, Russell H Taylor, Jeremy D. Richmon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: Assess the feasibility of a novel robotic platform for use in microvascular surgery. Study Design: Prospective feasibility study. Setting: Robotics laboratory. Methods: The Robotic ENT (Ear, Nose, and Throat) Microsurgery System (REMS) (Galen Robotics, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) is a robotic arm that stabilizes a surgeon's instrument, allowing precise, tremor-free movement. Six microvascular naïve medical students and one microvascular expert performed microvascular anastomosis of a chicken ischiatic artery, with and without the REMS. Trials were blindly graded by seven microvascular surgeons using a microvascular tremor scale (MTS) based on instrument tip movement as a function of vessel width. Time to completion (TTC) was measured, and an exit survey assessed participants' experience. The interrater reliability of the MTS was calculated. Results: For microvascular-naïve participants, the mean MTS score for REMS-assisted trials was 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-1.07) and 2.40 (95% CI 2.12-2.69) for freehand (P < 0.001). The mean TTC was 1,265 seconds for REMS-assisted trials and 1,320 seconds for freehand (P > 0.05). For the microvascular expert, the mean REMS-assisted MTS score was 0.71 (95% CI 0.15-1.27) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.35-1.37) for freehand (P > 0.05). TTC was 353 seconds for the REMS-assisted trial and 299 seconds for freehand. All participants thought the REMS was more accurate and improved instrument handling and stability. The intraclass correlation coefficient for MTS ratings was 0.914 (95% CI 0.823-0.968) for consistency and 0.901 (95% CI 0.795-0.963) for absolute value. Conclusion: The REMS is a feasible adjunct for microvascular surgery and a potential teaching tool capable of reducing tremor in novice users. Furthermore, the MTS is a feasible grading system for assessing microvascular tremor.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalLaryngoscope
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2017

Fingerprint

Microsurgery
Robotics
Tremor
Pharynx
Nose
Ear
Confidence Intervals
Feasibility Studies
Medical Students
Chickens
Teaching
Arteries
Prospective Studies

Keywords

  • Microvascular anastomosis
  • Microvascular surgery
  • Reconstructive surgery
  • Robotics
  • Simulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology

Cite this

Feng, A. L., Razavi, C. R., Lakshminarayanan, P., Ashai, Z., Olds, K., Balicki, M., ... Richmon, J. D. (Accepted/In press). The robotic ENT microsurgery system: A novel robotic platform for microvascular surgery. Laryngoscope. https://doi.org/10.1002/lary.26667

The robotic ENT microsurgery system : A novel robotic platform for microvascular surgery. / Feng, Allen L.; Razavi, Christopher R.; Lakshminarayanan, Pranav; Ashai, Zaid; Olds, Kevin; Balicki, Marcin; Gooi, Zhen; Day, Andrew T.; Taylor, Russell H; Richmon, Jeremy D.

In: Laryngoscope, 2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Feng, AL, Razavi, CR, Lakshminarayanan, P, Ashai, Z, Olds, K, Balicki, M, Gooi, Z, Day, AT, Taylor, RH & Richmon, JD 2017, 'The robotic ENT microsurgery system: A novel robotic platform for microvascular surgery', Laryngoscope. https://doi.org/10.1002/lary.26667
Feng, Allen L. ; Razavi, Christopher R. ; Lakshminarayanan, Pranav ; Ashai, Zaid ; Olds, Kevin ; Balicki, Marcin ; Gooi, Zhen ; Day, Andrew T. ; Taylor, Russell H ; Richmon, Jeremy D. / The robotic ENT microsurgery system : A novel robotic platform for microvascular surgery. In: Laryngoscope. 2017.
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abstract = "Objective: Assess the feasibility of a novel robotic platform for use in microvascular surgery. Study Design: Prospective feasibility study. Setting: Robotics laboratory. Methods: The Robotic ENT (Ear, Nose, and Throat) Microsurgery System (REMS) (Galen Robotics, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) is a robotic arm that stabilizes a surgeon's instrument, allowing precise, tremor-free movement. Six microvascular na{\"i}ve medical students and one microvascular expert performed microvascular anastomosis of a chicken ischiatic artery, with and without the REMS. Trials were blindly graded by seven microvascular surgeons using a microvascular tremor scale (MTS) based on instrument tip movement as a function of vessel width. Time to completion (TTC) was measured, and an exit survey assessed participants' experience. The interrater reliability of the MTS was calculated. Results: For microvascular-na{\"i}ve participants, the mean MTS score for REMS-assisted trials was 0.72 (95{\%} confidence interval [CI] 0.64-1.07) and 2.40 (95{\%} CI 2.12-2.69) for freehand (P < 0.001). The mean TTC was 1,265 seconds for REMS-assisted trials and 1,320 seconds for freehand (P > 0.05). For the microvascular expert, the mean REMS-assisted MTS score was 0.71 (95{\%} CI 0.15-1.27) and 0.86 (95{\%} CI 0.35-1.37) for freehand (P > 0.05). TTC was 353 seconds for the REMS-assisted trial and 299 seconds for freehand. All participants thought the REMS was more accurate and improved instrument handling and stability. The intraclass correlation coefficient for MTS ratings was 0.914 (95{\%} CI 0.823-0.968) for consistency and 0.901 (95{\%} CI 0.795-0.963) for absolute value. Conclusion: The REMS is a feasible adjunct for microvascular surgery and a potential teaching tool capable of reducing tremor in novice users. Furthermore, the MTS is a feasible grading system for assessing microvascular tremor.",
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author = "Feng, {Allen L.} and Razavi, {Christopher R.} and Pranav Lakshminarayanan and Zaid Ashai and Kevin Olds and Marcin Balicki and Zhen Gooi and Day, {Andrew T.} and Taylor, {Russell H} and Richmon, {Jeremy D.}",
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T2 - A novel robotic platform for microvascular surgery

AU - Feng, Allen L.

AU - Razavi, Christopher R.

AU - Lakshminarayanan, Pranav

AU - Ashai, Zaid

AU - Olds, Kevin

AU - Balicki, Marcin

AU - Gooi, Zhen

AU - Day, Andrew T.

AU - Taylor, Russell H

AU - Richmon, Jeremy D.

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Objective: Assess the feasibility of a novel robotic platform for use in microvascular surgery. Study Design: Prospective feasibility study. Setting: Robotics laboratory. Methods: The Robotic ENT (Ear, Nose, and Throat) Microsurgery System (REMS) (Galen Robotics, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) is a robotic arm that stabilizes a surgeon's instrument, allowing precise, tremor-free movement. Six microvascular naïve medical students and one microvascular expert performed microvascular anastomosis of a chicken ischiatic artery, with and without the REMS. Trials were blindly graded by seven microvascular surgeons using a microvascular tremor scale (MTS) based on instrument tip movement as a function of vessel width. Time to completion (TTC) was measured, and an exit survey assessed participants' experience. The interrater reliability of the MTS was calculated. Results: For microvascular-naïve participants, the mean MTS score for REMS-assisted trials was 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-1.07) and 2.40 (95% CI 2.12-2.69) for freehand (P < 0.001). The mean TTC was 1,265 seconds for REMS-assisted trials and 1,320 seconds for freehand (P > 0.05). For the microvascular expert, the mean REMS-assisted MTS score was 0.71 (95% CI 0.15-1.27) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.35-1.37) for freehand (P > 0.05). TTC was 353 seconds for the REMS-assisted trial and 299 seconds for freehand. All participants thought the REMS was more accurate and improved instrument handling and stability. The intraclass correlation coefficient for MTS ratings was 0.914 (95% CI 0.823-0.968) for consistency and 0.901 (95% CI 0.795-0.963) for absolute value. Conclusion: The REMS is a feasible adjunct for microvascular surgery and a potential teaching tool capable of reducing tremor in novice users. Furthermore, the MTS is a feasible grading system for assessing microvascular tremor.

AB - Objective: Assess the feasibility of a novel robotic platform for use in microvascular surgery. Study Design: Prospective feasibility study. Setting: Robotics laboratory. Methods: The Robotic ENT (Ear, Nose, and Throat) Microsurgery System (REMS) (Galen Robotics, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) is a robotic arm that stabilizes a surgeon's instrument, allowing precise, tremor-free movement. Six microvascular naïve medical students and one microvascular expert performed microvascular anastomosis of a chicken ischiatic artery, with and without the REMS. Trials were blindly graded by seven microvascular surgeons using a microvascular tremor scale (MTS) based on instrument tip movement as a function of vessel width. Time to completion (TTC) was measured, and an exit survey assessed participants' experience. The interrater reliability of the MTS was calculated. Results: For microvascular-naïve participants, the mean MTS score for REMS-assisted trials was 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-1.07) and 2.40 (95% CI 2.12-2.69) for freehand (P < 0.001). The mean TTC was 1,265 seconds for REMS-assisted trials and 1,320 seconds for freehand (P > 0.05). For the microvascular expert, the mean REMS-assisted MTS score was 0.71 (95% CI 0.15-1.27) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.35-1.37) for freehand (P > 0.05). TTC was 353 seconds for the REMS-assisted trial and 299 seconds for freehand. All participants thought the REMS was more accurate and improved instrument handling and stability. The intraclass correlation coefficient for MTS ratings was 0.914 (95% CI 0.823-0.968) for consistency and 0.901 (95% CI 0.795-0.963) for absolute value. Conclusion: The REMS is a feasible adjunct for microvascular surgery and a potential teaching tool capable of reducing tremor in novice users. Furthermore, the MTS is a feasible grading system for assessing microvascular tremor.

KW - Microvascular anastomosis

KW - Microvascular surgery

KW - Reconstructive surgery

KW - Robotics

KW - Simulation

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