The present study examined the effect of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and alcohol intake, and the role of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the aetiology of chronic liver disease in Albania. A total of 106 cases of liver cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis were compared to 195 control patients without these or other liver diseases. Adjusted odds ratios were 52.7 (95% CI 22.7-122) for HBV surface antigen, 26.9 (95% CI 4.9-147) for anti-HCV, 26.2 (95% CI 3.1-221) for anti-HDV, 2.4 (95% CI 1.3-4.4) for lifetime alcohol intake and 2.3 (95% CI 1-5.5) for duration of alcohol intake. Although not significant, an interaction was suggested between HBsAg and anti-HCV and between HBsAg and alcohol intake. Our study underlines the role of hepatitis viruses in the development of chronic liver diseases. Additionally, it suggests that heavy alcohol intake may magnify the effect of HBV on these diseases. HBV vaccination and alcohol abstention appear to be important strategies to reduce the risk of liver cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis in Albania.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases