The relationship between sugar-sweetened beverages and liver enzymes among healthy premenopausal women: a prospective cohort study

Maya K. Shimony, Karen C. Schliep, Enrique F. Schisterman, Katherine A. Ahrens, Lindsey A. Sjaarda, Yaron Rotman, Neil J. Perkins, Anna Z. Pollack, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Sunni L. Mumford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose: To prospectively assess the association between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), added sugar, and total fructose and serum concentrations of liver enzymes among healthy, reproductive-age women. Methods: A prospective cohort of 259 premenopausal women (average age 27.3 ± 8.2 years; BMI 24.1 ± kg/m2) were followed up for up to two menstrual cycles, providing up to eight fasting blood specimens/cycle and four 24-h dietary recalls/cycle. Women with a history of chronic disease were excluded. Alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST, respectively) were measured in serum samples. Linear mixed models estimated associations between average SSB, added sugar, and total fructose intake and log-transformed liver enzymes adjusting for age, race, body mass index, total energy and alcohol intake, and Mediterranean diet score. Results: For every 1 cup/day increase in SSB consumption and 10 g/day increase in added sugar and total fructose, log ALT increased by 0.079 U/L (95 % CI 0.022, 0.137), 0.012 U/L (95 % CI 0.002, 0.022), and 0.031 (0.012, 0.050), respectively, and log AST increased by 0.029 U/L (−0.011, 0.069), 0.007 U/L (0.000, 0.014), and 0.017 U/L (0.004, 0.030), respectively. Women who consumed ≥1.50 cups/day (12 oz can) SSB versus less had 0.127 U/L (95 % CI 0.001, 0.254) higher ALT [percent change 13.5 % (95 % CI 0.1, 28.9)] and 0.102 (95 % CI 0.015, 0.190) higher AST [percent change 10.8 % (95 % CI 1.5, 20.9)]. Conclusions: Sugar-sweetened beverages were associated with higher serum ALT and AST concentrations among healthy premenopausal women, indicating that habitual consumption of even moderate SSB may elicit hepatic lipogenesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)569-576
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Volume55
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2016
Externally publishedYes

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Beverages
Cohort Studies
Prospective Studies
Liver
Enzymes
Fructose
Serum
Mediterranean Diet
Lipogenesis
Menstrual Cycle
Aspartate Aminotransferases
Energy Intake
Alanine Transaminase
Linear Models
Fasting
Body Mass Index
Chronic Disease
Alcohols

Keywords

  • Dietary sucrose
  • Fructose
  • Liver enzymes
  • Menstrual cycle
  • Sugar-sweetened beverages

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Shimony, M. K., Schliep, K. C., Schisterman, E. F., Ahrens, K. A., Sjaarda, L. A., Rotman, Y., ... Mumford, S. L. (2016). The relationship between sugar-sweetened beverages and liver enzymes among healthy premenopausal women: a prospective cohort study. European Journal of Nutrition, 55(2), 569-576. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-015-0876-3

The relationship between sugar-sweetened beverages and liver enzymes among healthy premenopausal women : a prospective cohort study. / Shimony, Maya K.; Schliep, Karen C.; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Ahrens, Katherine A.; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.; Rotman, Yaron; Perkins, Neil J.; Pollack, Anna Z.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Mumford, Sunni L.

In: European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 55, No. 2, 01.03.2016, p. 569-576.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Shimony, MK, Schliep, KC, Schisterman, EF, Ahrens, KA, Sjaarda, LA, Rotman, Y, Perkins, NJ, Pollack, AZ, Wactawski-Wende, J & Mumford, SL 2016, 'The relationship between sugar-sweetened beverages and liver enzymes among healthy premenopausal women: a prospective cohort study', European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 569-576. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-015-0876-3
Shimony, Maya K. ; Schliep, Karen C. ; Schisterman, Enrique F. ; Ahrens, Katherine A. ; Sjaarda, Lindsey A. ; Rotman, Yaron ; Perkins, Neil J. ; Pollack, Anna Z. ; Wactawski-Wende, Jean ; Mumford, Sunni L. / The relationship between sugar-sweetened beverages and liver enzymes among healthy premenopausal women : a prospective cohort study. In: European Journal of Nutrition. 2016 ; Vol. 55, No. 2. pp. 569-576.
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AU - Shimony, Maya K.

AU - Schliep, Karen C.

AU - Schisterman, Enrique F.

AU - Ahrens, Katherine A.

AU - Sjaarda, Lindsey A.

AU - Rotman, Yaron

AU - Perkins, Neil J.

AU - Pollack, Anna Z.

AU - Wactawski-Wende, Jean

AU - Mumford, Sunni L.

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N2 - Purpose: To prospectively assess the association between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), added sugar, and total fructose and serum concentrations of liver enzymes among healthy, reproductive-age women. Methods: A prospective cohort of 259 premenopausal women (average age 27.3 ± 8.2 years; BMI 24.1 ± kg/m2) were followed up for up to two menstrual cycles, providing up to eight fasting blood specimens/cycle and four 24-h dietary recalls/cycle. Women with a history of chronic disease were excluded. Alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST, respectively) were measured in serum samples. Linear mixed models estimated associations between average SSB, added sugar, and total fructose intake and log-transformed liver enzymes adjusting for age, race, body mass index, total energy and alcohol intake, and Mediterranean diet score. Results: For every 1 cup/day increase in SSB consumption and 10 g/day increase in added sugar and total fructose, log ALT increased by 0.079 U/L (95 % CI 0.022, 0.137), 0.012 U/L (95 % CI 0.002, 0.022), and 0.031 (0.012, 0.050), respectively, and log AST increased by 0.029 U/L (−0.011, 0.069), 0.007 U/L (0.000, 0.014), and 0.017 U/L (0.004, 0.030), respectively. Women who consumed ≥1.50 cups/day (12 oz can) SSB versus less had 0.127 U/L (95 % CI 0.001, 0.254) higher ALT [percent change 13.5 % (95 % CI 0.1, 28.9)] and 0.102 (95 % CI 0.015, 0.190) higher AST [percent change 10.8 % (95 % CI 1.5, 20.9)]. Conclusions: Sugar-sweetened beverages were associated with higher serum ALT and AST concentrations among healthy premenopausal women, indicating that habitual consumption of even moderate SSB may elicit hepatic lipogenesis.

AB - Purpose: To prospectively assess the association between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), added sugar, and total fructose and serum concentrations of liver enzymes among healthy, reproductive-age women. Methods: A prospective cohort of 259 premenopausal women (average age 27.3 ± 8.2 years; BMI 24.1 ± kg/m2) were followed up for up to two menstrual cycles, providing up to eight fasting blood specimens/cycle and four 24-h dietary recalls/cycle. Women with a history of chronic disease were excluded. Alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST, respectively) were measured in serum samples. Linear mixed models estimated associations between average SSB, added sugar, and total fructose intake and log-transformed liver enzymes adjusting for age, race, body mass index, total energy and alcohol intake, and Mediterranean diet score. Results: For every 1 cup/day increase in SSB consumption and 10 g/day increase in added sugar and total fructose, log ALT increased by 0.079 U/L (95 % CI 0.022, 0.137), 0.012 U/L (95 % CI 0.002, 0.022), and 0.031 (0.012, 0.050), respectively, and log AST increased by 0.029 U/L (−0.011, 0.069), 0.007 U/L (0.000, 0.014), and 0.017 U/L (0.004, 0.030), respectively. Women who consumed ≥1.50 cups/day (12 oz can) SSB versus less had 0.127 U/L (95 % CI 0.001, 0.254) higher ALT [percent change 13.5 % (95 % CI 0.1, 28.9)] and 0.102 (95 % CI 0.015, 0.190) higher AST [percent change 10.8 % (95 % CI 1.5, 20.9)]. Conclusions: Sugar-sweetened beverages were associated with higher serum ALT and AST concentrations among healthy premenopausal women, indicating that habitual consumption of even moderate SSB may elicit hepatic lipogenesis.

KW - Dietary sucrose

KW - Fructose

KW - Liver enzymes

KW - Menstrual cycle

KW - Sugar-sweetened beverages

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