The relationship between Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index subscales and diabetes control

Onala Telford, Clarissa Diamantidis, Hayden B. Bosworth, Uptal D. Patel, Clemontina A. Davenport, Megan M. Oakes, Matthew J. Crowley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Objectives: Data suggest that poor sleep quality as measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) contributes to suboptimal diabetes control. How the subscales comprising the PSQI individually relate to diabetes control is poorly understood. Methods: In order to explore how PSQI subscales relate to diabetes control, we analyzed baseline data from a trial of a telemedicine intervention for diabetes. We used multivariable modeling to examine: (1) the relationship between the global PSQI and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c); (2) the relationships between the 7 PSQI subscales and HbA1c; and (3) medication nonadherence as a possible mediating factor. Results: Global PSQI was not associated with HbA1c (n = 279). Only one PSQI subscale, sleep disturbances, was associated with HbA1c after covariate adjustment; HbA1c increased by 0.4 points for each additional sleep disturbances subscale point (95%CI 0.1 to 0.8). Although the sleep disturbances subscale was associated with medication nonadherence (OR 2.04, 95%CI 1.27 to 3.30), a mediation analysis indicated nonadherence does not mediate the sleep disturbances-HbA1c relationship. Discussion: The sleep disturbances subscale may drive the previously observed relationship between PSQI and HbA1c. The mechanism for the relationship between sleep disturbances and HbA1c remains unclear, as does the impact on HbA1c of addressing sleep disturbances.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalChronic Illness
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018
Externally publishedYes



  • diabetes
  • hemoglobin A1c
  • Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index
  • sleep disturbance
  • Sleep quality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy

Cite this

Telford, O., Diamantidis, C., Bosworth, H. B., Patel, U. D., Davenport, C. A., Oakes, M. M., & Crowley, M. J. (Accepted/In press). The relationship between Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index subscales and diabetes control. Chronic Illness.