The Relationship Between Discrimination and Missed HIV Care Appointments Among Women Living with HIV

Andrew E. Cressman, Chanelle J. Howe, Amy S. Nunn, Adaora A. Adimora, David R. Williams, Mirjam Colette Kempf, Aruna Chandran, Eryka L. Wentz, Oni J. Blackstock, Seble G. Kassaye, Jennifer Cohen, Mardge H. Cohen, Gina M. Wingood, Lisa R. Metsch, Tracey E. Wilson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Receiving regular HIV care is crucial for maintaining good health among persons with HIV. However, racial and gender disparities in HIV care receipt exist. Discrimination and its impact may vary by race/ethnicity and gender, contributing to disparities. Data from 1578 women in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study ascertained from 10/1/2012 to 9/30/2016 were used to: (1) estimate the relationship between discrimination and missing any scheduled HIV care appointments and (2) assess whether this relationship is effect measure modified by race/ethnicity. Self-reported measures captured discrimination and the primary outcome of missing any HIV care appointments in the last 6 months. Log-binomial models accounting for measured sources of confounding and selection bias were fit. For the primary outcome analyses, women experiencing discrimination typically had a higher prevalence of missing an HIV care appointment. Moreover, there was no statistically significant evidence for effect measure modification by race/ethnicity. Interventions to minimize discrimination or its impact may improve HIV care engagement among women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)151-164
Number of pages14
JournalAIDS and behavior
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020


  • HIV
  • Health status disparities
  • Outpatient care
  • Social discrimination
  • Women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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