The reinforcing effects of nicotine in humans and nonhuman primates: A review of intravenous self-administration evidence and future directions for research

Amy K. Goodwin, Takato Hiranita, Merle G. Paule

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Introduction: Cigarette smoking is largely driven by the reinforcing properties of nicotine. Intravenous (IV) self-administration procedures are the gold standard for investigating the reinforcing effects of psychoactive drugs. The goal of this review was to examine the results of published investigations of the reinforcing effects of nicotine measured using IV self-administration procedures in humans and nonhuman primates. Results: The body of literature using nonhuman primate subjects indicates nicotine functions as a positive reinforcer when available for self-administration via IV catheters. However, it can also be difficult to establish IV nicotine self-administration in nonhuman primates and sometimes supplemental strategies have been required (e.g., priming injections or food deprivation) before subjects acquire the behavior. Although the body of literature using human subjects is limited, the evidence indicates nicotine functions as a reinforcer via the IV route of administration in adult cigarette smokers. Rates of nicotine self-injection can be variable across subjects and responding is sometimes inconsistent across sessions in both humans and nonhuman primates. Conclusions: The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, enacted in 2009, gave the Food and Drug Administration regulatory authority over the manufacture, marketing, and distribution of tobacco products. Research examining the threshold reinforcing doses for initiation and maintenance of nicotine self-administration, comparisons of the reinforcing effects of nicotine in adolescent versus adult subjects, investigations of gender differences in the reinforcing effects of nicotine, and studies of the abuse liability of non-nicotine tobacco product constituents and their ability to alter the reinforcing effects of nicotine will inform potential tobacco regulatory actions. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberntv002
Pages (from-to)1297-1310
Number of pages14
JournalNicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Volume17
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2015
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Self Administration
Nicotine
Intravenous Administration
Primates
Research
Tobacco Products
Smoking
Direction compound
Food Deprivation
Injections
Aptitude
Public Sector
Psychotropic Drugs
United States Food and Drug Administration
Marketing
Tobacco
Catheters
Maintenance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

@article{15e0fb184026430c8995f23e34d6370e,
title = "The reinforcing effects of nicotine in humans and nonhuman primates: A review of intravenous self-administration evidence and future directions for research",
abstract = "Introduction: Cigarette smoking is largely driven by the reinforcing properties of nicotine. Intravenous (IV) self-administration procedures are the gold standard for investigating the reinforcing effects of psychoactive drugs. The goal of this review was to examine the results of published investigations of the reinforcing effects of nicotine measured using IV self-administration procedures in humans and nonhuman primates. Results: The body of literature using nonhuman primate subjects indicates nicotine functions as a positive reinforcer when available for self-administration via IV catheters. However, it can also be difficult to establish IV nicotine self-administration in nonhuman primates and sometimes supplemental strategies have been required (e.g., priming injections or food deprivation) before subjects acquire the behavior. Although the body of literature using human subjects is limited, the evidence indicates nicotine functions as a reinforcer via the IV route of administration in adult cigarette smokers. Rates of nicotine self-injection can be variable across subjects and responding is sometimes inconsistent across sessions in both humans and nonhuman primates. Conclusions: The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, enacted in 2009, gave the Food and Drug Administration regulatory authority over the manufacture, marketing, and distribution of tobacco products. Research examining the threshold reinforcing doses for initiation and maintenance of nicotine self-administration, comparisons of the reinforcing effects of nicotine in adolescent versus adult subjects, investigations of gender differences in the reinforcing effects of nicotine, and studies of the abuse liability of non-nicotine tobacco product constituents and their ability to alter the reinforcing effects of nicotine will inform potential tobacco regulatory actions. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.",
author = "Goodwin, {Amy K.} and Takato Hiranita and Paule, {Merle G.}",
year = "2015",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1093/ntr/ntv002",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "17",
pages = "1297--1310",
journal = "Nicotine and Tobacco Research",
issn = "1462-2203",
publisher = "Oxford University Press",
number = "11",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The reinforcing effects of nicotine in humans and nonhuman primates

T2 - A review of intravenous self-administration evidence and future directions for research

AU - Goodwin, Amy K.

AU - Hiranita, Takato

AU - Paule, Merle G.

PY - 2015/11/1

Y1 - 2015/11/1

N2 - Introduction: Cigarette smoking is largely driven by the reinforcing properties of nicotine. Intravenous (IV) self-administration procedures are the gold standard for investigating the reinforcing effects of psychoactive drugs. The goal of this review was to examine the results of published investigations of the reinforcing effects of nicotine measured using IV self-administration procedures in humans and nonhuman primates. Results: The body of literature using nonhuman primate subjects indicates nicotine functions as a positive reinforcer when available for self-administration via IV catheters. However, it can also be difficult to establish IV nicotine self-administration in nonhuman primates and sometimes supplemental strategies have been required (e.g., priming injections or food deprivation) before subjects acquire the behavior. Although the body of literature using human subjects is limited, the evidence indicates nicotine functions as a reinforcer via the IV route of administration in adult cigarette smokers. Rates of nicotine self-injection can be variable across subjects and responding is sometimes inconsistent across sessions in both humans and nonhuman primates. Conclusions: The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, enacted in 2009, gave the Food and Drug Administration regulatory authority over the manufacture, marketing, and distribution of tobacco products. Research examining the threshold reinforcing doses for initiation and maintenance of nicotine self-administration, comparisons of the reinforcing effects of nicotine in adolescent versus adult subjects, investigations of gender differences in the reinforcing effects of nicotine, and studies of the abuse liability of non-nicotine tobacco product constituents and their ability to alter the reinforcing effects of nicotine will inform potential tobacco regulatory actions. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

AB - Introduction: Cigarette smoking is largely driven by the reinforcing properties of nicotine. Intravenous (IV) self-administration procedures are the gold standard for investigating the reinforcing effects of psychoactive drugs. The goal of this review was to examine the results of published investigations of the reinforcing effects of nicotine measured using IV self-administration procedures in humans and nonhuman primates. Results: The body of literature using nonhuman primate subjects indicates nicotine functions as a positive reinforcer when available for self-administration via IV catheters. However, it can also be difficult to establish IV nicotine self-administration in nonhuman primates and sometimes supplemental strategies have been required (e.g., priming injections or food deprivation) before subjects acquire the behavior. Although the body of literature using human subjects is limited, the evidence indicates nicotine functions as a reinforcer via the IV route of administration in adult cigarette smokers. Rates of nicotine self-injection can be variable across subjects and responding is sometimes inconsistent across sessions in both humans and nonhuman primates. Conclusions: The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, enacted in 2009, gave the Food and Drug Administration regulatory authority over the manufacture, marketing, and distribution of tobacco products. Research examining the threshold reinforcing doses for initiation and maintenance of nicotine self-administration, comparisons of the reinforcing effects of nicotine in adolescent versus adult subjects, investigations of gender differences in the reinforcing effects of nicotine, and studies of the abuse liability of non-nicotine tobacco product constituents and their ability to alter the reinforcing effects of nicotine will inform potential tobacco regulatory actions. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84945488351&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84945488351&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1093/ntr/ntv002

DO - 10.1093/ntr/ntv002

M3 - Article

C2 - 25673111

AN - SCOPUS:84945488351

VL - 17

SP - 1297

EP - 1310

JO - Nicotine and Tobacco Research

JF - Nicotine and Tobacco Research

SN - 1462-2203

IS - 11

M1 - ntv002

ER -