Phakomatoses, also known as neurocutaneous disorders, comprise a vast number of entities that predominantly affect structures originated from the ectoderm such as the central nervous system and the skin, but also the mesoderm, particularly the vascular system. Extensive literature exists about the most common phakomatoses, namely neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, von Hippel-Lindau and Sturge-Weber syndrome. However, recent developments in the understanding of the molecular underpinnings of less common phakomatoses have sparked interest in these disorders. In this article, we review the clinical features, current pathogenesis, and modern neuroimaging findings of melanophakomatoses, vascular phakomatoses, and other rare neurocutaneous syndromes that may also include tissue overgrowth or neoplastic predisposition.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging