Seventy-four conscious rabbits undergoing a sequence of six 4-minute coronary occlusion/4-minute reperfusion cycles for 3 consecutive days (days 1, 2, and 3) were assigned to nine groups. In group I (controls, n=8), the recovery of systolic wall thickening (WTh) after the sixth reperfusion was markedly improved on days 2 and 3 compared with day 1, indicating late preconditioning (PC) against myocardial stunning; the total deficit of WTh after the sixth reperfusion was reduced by 56% on day 2 and 50% on day 3 compared with day 1 (P<.01). Administration on day 2 of the nonselective NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA) (group II, n=8) or of the selective inducible NOS inhibitors aminoguanidine (AG) (group IV, n=8) and S-methylisothiourea sulfate (SMT) (group VI, n=6) completely abrogated late PC against stunning on day 2. On day 3, the expected PC effect became manifest in all groups. Administration of L-NA, AG, or SMT on day 1 (groups III [n=7], V [n=6], and VII [n=5], respectively) had no discernible effect on the deficit of WTh on day 1, indicating that these agents do not augment the severity of myocardial stunning in nonpreconditioned myocardium. In group VIII (n=7), the abrogation of late PC by SMT on day 2 was completely reversed by the concomitant administration of L-arginine (595 mg/kg IV), indicating that it was not due to nonspecific NOS-unrelated actions. Administration of L-arginine alone on day 2 (group IX [n=5]) had no effect on the deficit of WTh. Furthermore, administration of L-NA on day 1 (group III) prevented the appearance of the PC effect on day 2, whereas AG (group V) and SMT (group VI) did not, suggesting that the development of late PC on day 1 is triggered by the endothelial (type III) isoform of NOS. This study demonstrates that three structurally different NOS inhibitors (L-NA, AG, and SMT), given 24 hours after the PC ischemia, consistently abrogate late PC against myocardial stunning in conscious rabbits, indicating that this cardioprotective effect is mediated by the activity of NOS. The results obtained with AG and SMT specifically implicate the inducible (type II) isoform as the mediator of the protection on day 2. Previous studies have shown that NO triggers the development of late PC. The present results indicate that NO plays a dual role in late PC against stunning, acting initially as the trigger and subsequently as the mediator of the protection.
- Myocardial reperfusion
- S- methylisothiourea sulfate
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine