Acute kidney injury (AKI) often results from ischemia reperfusion, sepsis, or exposure to nephrotoxins and is associated with a high rate of mortality and morbidity. Advances in understanding the pathophysiology of AKI may lead to the development of specific therapies. Although there is evidence of an important role for immune cells in AKI, the specific relevant populations and the mechanisms of their actions are unclear. In this issue of the JCI, Li et al. demonstrate that adenosine manipulates DC responses to kidney injury, raising hope that immunotherapy could be a tangible approach to AKI.
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