The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among industrial hog operation workers, community residents, and children living in their households: North carolina, USA

Sarah M. Hatcher, Sarah M. Rhodes, Jill R. Stewart, Ellen Silbergeld, Nora Pisanic, Jesper Larsen, Sharon Jiang, Amanda Krosche, Devon Hall, Karen C. Carroll, Christopher D. Heaney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Antibiotic use in industrial hog operations (IHOs) can support the emergence of antibiotic-resistant (ABR) Staphylococcus aureus. The extent of ABR S. aureus exposure in IHO workers and children living in their households remains unclear. Objective: We investigated ABR S. aureus nasal carriage prevalence among adults with versus without occupational exposure to IHOs and among children living in their households. Methods: In total, 198 IHO worker–child household pairs and 202 community referent (CR) adult–child household pairs completed a questionnaire and provided a nasal swab which was analyzed for S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA), absence of scn (putative marker of livestock association), and spa type. Results: S. aureus nasal carriage prevalence was higher among IHO (53%) compared with CR (31%) adults [adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR): 1.40; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 1.83], but MRSA nasal carriage prevalence was uncommon (2–3%) in IHO and CR adults. MDRSA nasal carriage prevalence was similar among IHO workers and CR adults (12% vs. 8%; aPR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.56, 2.29). Nasal carriage prevalence was higher among IHO compared with CR children for S. aureus (49% vs. 31%; aPR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.99), MRSA (14% vs. 6%; aPR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.14, 4.92), and MDRSA (23% vs. 8%; aPR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.47, 4.75). We also found suggestive evidence of a higher prevalence of S. aureus, MRSA, and MDRSA among children living with an IHO worker who did versus did not report taking personal protective equipment (PPE) home from the IHO. Livestock-associated S. aureus nasal carriage predominated among IHO workers. Conclusion: Our findings support the importance of further research on the prevalence and potential sources of exposure to ABR S. aureus among children living with IHO workers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)560-569
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental health perspectives
Volume125
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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