The prevalence and correlates of single cigarette selling among urban disadvantaged drug users in Baltimore, Maryland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Selling of single cigarettes, also known as loosies, is a public health concern. Loosies allow for those with fewer resources to buy cigarettes without having to purchase a pack. Selling of loosies may cue smoking behaviors. In the US, socioeconomically disadvantaged populations have high rates of smoking and illicit drug use and the selling of loosies appears to be linked to the urban informal economy. We examined the proportion and frequency of cigarette selling and roles in the informal economy associated with selling loosies among a sample of urban drug users. Methods: There were 801 participants, recruited by community outreach, assessed at baseline, who were enrolled in an HIV prevention intervention for drug users. Results: Most (89%) smoked cigarettes in the prior 30 days, of whom 92% smoked daily. Self-reported selling of cigarettes was common with 58% reporting that they had sold cigarettes within the last six months; 20.4% reported selling cigarettes a few times a week and 7.4% reported daily selling of cigarettes. In a stepwise regression model, four sources of income were associated with frequent cigarette selling: providing street security (OR=2.214, 95% CI 1.177-4.164), selling food stamps (OR=1.461, 95% CI 1.003-2.126), pawning items (OR=2.15, 95% CI 1.475-3.135), and selling drugs (OR=1.634, 95% CI 1.008-2.648). Conclusion: There is a high rate of selling loosies among urban substance users. The wide availability of loosies may promote smoking. Smoking cessation programs with drug treatment and economic development programs may help to reduce economic pressures to sell loosies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)466-470
Number of pages5
JournalDrug and Alcohol Dependence
Volume132
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2013

Fingerprint

Baltimore
Vulnerable Populations
Drug Users
Tobacco Products
Sales
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Smoking
Food Assistance
Community-Institutional Relations
Economic Development
Street Drugs
Smoking Cessation
Drug therapy
Economics
Cues
Public health
Public Health
HIV
Pressure

Keywords

  • Cigarette selling
  • Crack cocaine
  • Informal economy
  • Loosies
  • Opiates
  • Urban health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

@article{c89844ec01964a34aae8db8fed6de29f,
title = "The prevalence and correlates of single cigarette selling among urban disadvantaged drug users in Baltimore, Maryland",
abstract = "Background: Selling of single cigarettes, also known as loosies, is a public health concern. Loosies allow for those with fewer resources to buy cigarettes without having to purchase a pack. Selling of loosies may cue smoking behaviors. In the US, socioeconomically disadvantaged populations have high rates of smoking and illicit drug use and the selling of loosies appears to be linked to the urban informal economy. We examined the proportion and frequency of cigarette selling and roles in the informal economy associated with selling loosies among a sample of urban drug users. Methods: There were 801 participants, recruited by community outreach, assessed at baseline, who were enrolled in an HIV prevention intervention for drug users. Results: Most (89{\%}) smoked cigarettes in the prior 30 days, of whom 92{\%} smoked daily. Self-reported selling of cigarettes was common with 58{\%} reporting that they had sold cigarettes within the last six months; 20.4{\%} reported selling cigarettes a few times a week and 7.4{\%} reported daily selling of cigarettes. In a stepwise regression model, four sources of income were associated with frequent cigarette selling: providing street security (OR=2.214, 95{\%} CI 1.177-4.164), selling food stamps (OR=1.461, 95{\%} CI 1.003-2.126), pawning items (OR=2.15, 95{\%} CI 1.475-3.135), and selling drugs (OR=1.634, 95{\%} CI 1.008-2.648). Conclusion: There is a high rate of selling loosies among urban substance users. The wide availability of loosies may promote smoking. Smoking cessation programs with drug treatment and economic development programs may help to reduce economic pressures to sell loosies.",
keywords = "Cigarette selling, Crack cocaine, Informal economy, Loosies, Opiates, Urban health",
author = "Latkin, {Carl A} and Murray, {Laura I.} and Katherine Smith and Cohen, {Joanna E} and Knowlton, {Amy Ruth}",
year = "2013",
month = "10",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.03.007",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "132",
pages = "466--470",
journal = "Drug and Alcohol Dependence",
issn = "0376-8716",
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number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The prevalence and correlates of single cigarette selling among urban disadvantaged drug users in Baltimore, Maryland

AU - Latkin, Carl A

AU - Murray, Laura I.

AU - Smith, Katherine

AU - Cohen, Joanna E

AU - Knowlton, Amy Ruth

PY - 2013/10/1

Y1 - 2013/10/1

N2 - Background: Selling of single cigarettes, also known as loosies, is a public health concern. Loosies allow for those with fewer resources to buy cigarettes without having to purchase a pack. Selling of loosies may cue smoking behaviors. In the US, socioeconomically disadvantaged populations have high rates of smoking and illicit drug use and the selling of loosies appears to be linked to the urban informal economy. We examined the proportion and frequency of cigarette selling and roles in the informal economy associated with selling loosies among a sample of urban drug users. Methods: There were 801 participants, recruited by community outreach, assessed at baseline, who were enrolled in an HIV prevention intervention for drug users. Results: Most (89%) smoked cigarettes in the prior 30 days, of whom 92% smoked daily. Self-reported selling of cigarettes was common with 58% reporting that they had sold cigarettes within the last six months; 20.4% reported selling cigarettes a few times a week and 7.4% reported daily selling of cigarettes. In a stepwise regression model, four sources of income were associated with frequent cigarette selling: providing street security (OR=2.214, 95% CI 1.177-4.164), selling food stamps (OR=1.461, 95% CI 1.003-2.126), pawning items (OR=2.15, 95% CI 1.475-3.135), and selling drugs (OR=1.634, 95% CI 1.008-2.648). Conclusion: There is a high rate of selling loosies among urban substance users. The wide availability of loosies may promote smoking. Smoking cessation programs with drug treatment and economic development programs may help to reduce economic pressures to sell loosies.

AB - Background: Selling of single cigarettes, also known as loosies, is a public health concern. Loosies allow for those with fewer resources to buy cigarettes without having to purchase a pack. Selling of loosies may cue smoking behaviors. In the US, socioeconomically disadvantaged populations have high rates of smoking and illicit drug use and the selling of loosies appears to be linked to the urban informal economy. We examined the proportion and frequency of cigarette selling and roles in the informal economy associated with selling loosies among a sample of urban drug users. Methods: There were 801 participants, recruited by community outreach, assessed at baseline, who were enrolled in an HIV prevention intervention for drug users. Results: Most (89%) smoked cigarettes in the prior 30 days, of whom 92% smoked daily. Self-reported selling of cigarettes was common with 58% reporting that they had sold cigarettes within the last six months; 20.4% reported selling cigarettes a few times a week and 7.4% reported daily selling of cigarettes. In a stepwise regression model, four sources of income were associated with frequent cigarette selling: providing street security (OR=2.214, 95% CI 1.177-4.164), selling food stamps (OR=1.461, 95% CI 1.003-2.126), pawning items (OR=2.15, 95% CI 1.475-3.135), and selling drugs (OR=1.634, 95% CI 1.008-2.648). Conclusion: There is a high rate of selling loosies among urban substance users. The wide availability of loosies may promote smoking. Smoking cessation programs with drug treatment and economic development programs may help to reduce economic pressures to sell loosies.

KW - Cigarette selling

KW - Crack cocaine

KW - Informal economy

KW - Loosies

KW - Opiates

KW - Urban health

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DO - 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.03.007

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VL - 132

SP - 466

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JO - Drug and Alcohol Dependence

JF - Drug and Alcohol Dependence

SN - 0376-8716

IS - 3

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