The potential contribution of fortified maize flour, oil, rice, salt, and wheat flour to estimated average requirements and tolerable upper intake levels for 15 nutrients in 153 countries

Helena Pachón, Bethany Reynolds, Michelle Duong, Becky L. Tsang, Lana Childs, Corey L. Luthringer, Yunhee Kang, Florencia C. Vasta, Karen Codling

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Food fortification is designed to improve the nutritional profile of diets. The purpose of this research was to estimate the potential nutrient contribution of fortified maize flour, oil, rice, salt, and wheat flour in 153 countries, using the national intake (or availability) of the food and the nutrient levels required for fortification. This was done under two scenarios—maximum, where 100% of the food is assumed to be industrially processed and fortified, and realistic, where the maximum value is adjusted based on the percent of the food that is industrially processed and fortified. Under the maximum scenario, the median Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) met ranged from 22–75% for 14 nutrients (vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, D, E, folic acid and calcium, fluoride, iron, selenium and zinc), and 338% for iodine. In the realistic scenario, the median EARs met were 181% for iodine and <35% for the other nutrients. In both scenarios, the median Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) met were <55% for all nutrients. Under the realistic scenario, no country ex-ceeded 100% of the UL for any nutrient. Current fortification practices of the five foods of interest have the global potential to contribute up to 15 nutrients to the diets of people, with minimal risk of exceeding ULs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number579
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalNutrients
Volume13
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2021

Keywords

  • Condiments
  • Dietary reference intakes
  • Enrichment
  • Fortification
  • Micronutrients

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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