The pharmacology of antiretroviral nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors: Implications for once-daily dosing

David J. Back, David M. Burger, Charles W. Flexner, John G. Gerber, Spino Spino

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

The trend toward once-daily dosing in HIV antiretroviral therapy is based on the association between adherence, treatment outcome, and patient preferences. Patients prefer simpler treatments, fewer pills, less frequent dosing, and no food restrictions. When a regimen meets a patient's preferences, the patient is more likely to be adherent, and with good adherence, the regimen is more likely to be effective. Nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) have been a prime focus for developing once-daily therapies primarily because they form the backbone of most current regimens. Within the NRTI class, however, drugs differ in their pharmacokinetic properties, such as plasma and intracellular half-lives, and thus in their suitability for once-daily dosing. For example, newer NRTIs, such as tenofovir and emtricitabine, combine longer plasma half-lives with longer intracellular half-lives, prolonging exposure and the period of pharmacologic activity. Of equal importance, the clinical impact of systemic and intracellular interactions between concomitant drugs defines which once-daily drugs may be combined in once-daily regimens. To construct simplified and effective therapies for individual patients, clinicians require an understanding of the plasma and intracellular pharmacokinetic properties of NRTIs and how these properties determine a drug's appropriateness for once-daily dosing and placement within a once-daily regimen.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S1-S25
JournalJournal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes
Volume39
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2005

Keywords

  • Drug interactions
  • Intracellular half-life
  • Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
  • Once-daily dosing
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Plasma half-life

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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