The pharmacokinetics of injectable allopurinol in newborns with the hypoplastic left heart syndrome

S. P. McGaurn, L. E. Davis, M. M. Krawczeniuk, J. D. Murphy, M. L. Jacobs, W. I. Norwood, R. R. Clancy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the pharmacokinetic disposition of intravenous allopurinol and its metabolite oxypurinol in neonates with the hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and to evaluate the subsequent degree of xanthine oxidase inhibition using serum uric acid as a marker. Methods. Pharmacokinetic data were evaluated in 12 stable preoperative neonates with HLHS after a single intravenous allopurinol administration of 5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for elimination half-life, clearance, volume of distribution, and mean residence time. Xanthine oxidase inhibition, measured by serum uric acid reduction, was also measured. Results. Pharmacokinetic parameters revealed no statistically significant differences between a 5-mg/kg and 10-mg/kg dose of intravenous allopurinol on elimination half-life, clearance, volume of distribution, and mean residence time. Mean serum uric acid levels were significantly reduced from baseline by 39.99 and 42.94%, respectively, in the 5- and 10-mg/kg treatment groups. Discussion. The enzyme xanthine oxidase plays a key biochemical role in the generation of toxic oxygen-derived free radicals during ischemia-reperfusion conditions. Allopurinol and its active metabolite oxypurinol inhibit xanthine oxidase, and significantly reduce the conversion of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid. Cell injury may be caused by toxic oxygen free radicals produced by ischemia-reperfusion injury such as could occur during the repair of HLHS under hypothermic total circulatory arrest. We hypothesize that allopurinol may provide protection from cellular injury in this clinical context.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)820-823
Number of pages4
JournalPediatrics
Volume94
Issue number6 I
StatePublished - Dec 8 1994
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • allopurinol
  • hypoplastic left heart syndrome
  • hypothermic total circulatory arrest
  • ischemia-reperfusion
  • neuroprotection
  • pharmacokinetics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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    McGaurn, S. P., Davis, L. E., Krawczeniuk, M. M., Murphy, J. D., Jacobs, M. L., Norwood, W. I., & Clancy, R. R. (1994). The pharmacokinetics of injectable allopurinol in newborns with the hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Pediatrics, 94(6 I), 820-823.