The Persian Wednesday Eve Festival "Charshanbe-Soori" fireworks eye injuries: A case series

Mohammad Reza Mansouri, Seyed Farzad Mohammadi, Elham Hatef, Hamed Rahbari, Mohammad Shahram Khazanehdari, Pouya Zandi, Sasan Moghimi, Niloofar Piri, Alireza Fahim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Purpose: To describe the clinical spectrum and severity of eye injuries sustained during the Persian Wednesday Eve Festival "Charshanbe-Soori" and to identify the fireworks devices involved. Methods: Prospectively, consecutive patients treated for fireworks-related eye injuries in the emergency room at Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, over 3 days around the occasion in 2000, 2001, and 2002 were studied. Results: Four hundred thirty-seven cases of eye injuries with an age range of 2-74 (median 17; SD 11.1) years were studied: 84.6% were male; 18.6% of the injuries were bilateral; 79.9% of the injured were bystanders or passersby. Eleven types of devices were involved, of which seven were explosives and eight were homemade. "Narenjaks," homemade grenades, were involved in 62.2%, firecrackers in 14.8%, and sparklers in 6.2% of the events. Injuries were categorized as severe in 49% of cases, and 45 (10.4%) people were hospitalized. Five eyes with no light perception and/or enucleation, 33 cases of monocular blindness, 54 (12.3%) cases of open globe (including intraocular foreign bodies) were observed. Grenades, bystander and passerby roles, outdoor context, a relatively older age, lower socioeconomic status, and male gender in the subset of passive roles were the determinants of more severe injuries (all p values < 0.05). Lid injuries (67.7%), corneal abrasions (51.6%), hyphema (48.1%), superficial foreign bodies (32.5%), and corneal contusions (13.8%) were the five leading injuries. Conclusions: In Iran, fireworks cause frequent and diverse injuries during the Wednesday Eve Festival and are a leading cause of severe eye injuries and monocular blindness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)17-24
Number of pages8
JournalOphthalmic Epidemiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • "Charshanbe-Soori" Fireworks
  • Eye injuries
  • Persian Wednesday Eve Festival

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Ophthalmology


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