The pediatric sleep clinical global impressions scale - A new tool to measure pediatric insomnia in autism spectrum disorders

Beth A. Malow, Heidi V. Connolly, Shelly K. Weiss, Ann Halbower, Suzanne Goldman, Susan L. Hyman, Terry Katz, Niru Madduri, Amy Shui, Eric Macklin, Ann M. Reynolds

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Objective: To pilot a clinician-based outcome measure that provides complementary information to objective measures and parent-based questionnaires for insomnia in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: The authors developed a Pediatric Sleep Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI). Questions included (1) the child's ability to fall asleep and remain sleeping independently (i.e., apart from parents); (2) bedtime resistance; (3) sleep onset delay; (4) night awakening; (5) parental satisfaction with their child's current sleep patterns; (6) family functioning as affected by their child's current sleep patterns; and (7) clinician's overall concern with the child's sleep. After refining the instrument through the evaluation of vignettes by ASD and sleep experts, the authors piloted the Pediatric Sleep CGI in a 12-week randomized trial of iron supplementation in children with ASD. Clinicians completed Pediatric Sleep CGIs and structured sleep histories, parents completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and children wore actigraphy watches. Results: In repeated measures models, the Pediatric Sleep CGI and CSHQ were correlated for sleep onset delay (r 5.66, p

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)370-376
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes



  • Actigraphy
  • Autism
  • CGI
  • Children's sleep habits questionnaire
  • Sleep

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this