The pathologic spectrum of pulmonary lesions in patients with anti- neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies specific for anti-proteinase 3 and anti-myeloperoxidase

P. B. Gaudin, F. B. Askin, R. J. Falk, J. C. Jennette

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) occur in a subset of patients with systemic small vessel vasculitis, including patients with Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis (microscopic polyarteritis), and Churg-Strauss syndrome. Pulmonary disease appears at some time during the course in many patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis. The histologic features of 25 open lung biopsies and two autopsy cases were studied from 27 patients with ANCA. Patients' ages ranged from 8 to 79 years with a mean of 52.6 years. There were 12 females and 15 males. Autoantibodies were characterized as C-ANCA in 13 patients and as P-ANCA in 14 patients. Anti-proteinase 3 antibodies were documented in 12 of 13 patients with C- ANCA. Anti-myeloperoxidase antibodies were documented in all 14 patients with P-ANCA. Vascular lesions were present in 21 patients (78%) and 11 patients (41%) had bronchial lesions. Capillaritis was the most common vascular lesion (17 patients, 63%), and was found with similar frequency in patients with C- ANCA and those with P-ANCA. Extravascular structures were a common site of tissue injury. Airway lesions including bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (4 patients, 19%), necrotizing granulomatous inflammation (4 patients, 15%), and non-granulomatous inflammation (3 patients, 11%) were more commonly associated with patients with C-ANCA. Interstitial lesions were found in 20 patients (74%), and included necrotizing granulomatous inflammation (8 patients, 30%), fibrosis (13 patients, 48%), and chronic inflammation (12 patients, 44%). No histologic lesion were found that were specific for C-ANCA or P-ANCA. This series demonstrates the wide variety of pulmonary lesions found in patients with ANCA-associated pulmonary disease, and shows that extravascular structures are a common site of injury in ANCA- associated vasculitis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7-16
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican journal of clinical pathology
Volume104
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1995

Keywords

  • ANCA
  • Alveolar hemorrhage
  • Diffuse alveolar damage
  • Lung
  • Vasculitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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