Purpose: To review the current literature on the detection and measurement of antiretinal antibodies. Design: Collaborative essay. Methods: Literature review and interpretation. Results: There is strong evidence to suggest a role for antiretinal antibodies, particularly those targeting recoverin and α-enolase, in the pathogenesis of autoimmune retinopathy (AIR). Additionally, numerous other autoantibodies have been described as putative mediators of retinal degeneration and more remain to be discovered. However, assay methods described in the literature by many laboratories for the detection of circulating antiretinal antibodies have been varied and diverse, making it difficult to interpret and compare their results. Conclusions: There is currently little standardization of laboratory methods used to detect and monitor antiretinal antibodies. To measure and monitor levels of circulating antiretinal antibodies optimally in patients with AIR, development of standardized assays with stringent internal controls is required. A multicenter collaborative and validation effort is encouraged to reach a consensus on this issue.
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