The Natural History of Men Treated With Deferred Androgen Deprivation Therapy in Whom Metastatic Prostate Cancer Developed Following Radical Prostatectomy

Danil V. Makarov, Elizabeth B. Humphreys, Leslie A. Mangold, Michael A. Carducci, Alan W. Partin, Mario A. Eisenberger, Patrick C. Walsh, Bruce J. Trock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: We report on the natural history and factors influencing the prognosis of a cohort of hormone naïve, prostate specific antigen era patients in whom metastatic prostate cancer developed after radical prostatectomy who were followed closely and treated with deferred androgen deprivation therapy at the time of metastasis. Materials and Methods: A total of 3,096 men underwent radical prostatectomy performed by a single surgeon at Johns Hopkins Hospital between 1987 and 2005. Of these men 422 had prostate specific antigen failure. Distant metastasis developed in 123 patients, of whom 91 with complete data formed the study cohort initially treated during the prostate specific antigen era (1987 to 2005) and receiving androgen deprivation therapy after documented metastasis. A total of 41 men died of prostate cancer. Median survival times were estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Prognostic impact was estimated as the hazard ratio derived from the Cox proportional hazards model. Results: Median followup from radical prostatectomy was 120 months (range 24 to 216). Kaplan-Meier median (range) times to failure were 24 months (12 to 144) from radical prostatectomy to prostate specific antigen failure, 36 months (0 to 132) from prostate specific antigen failure to metastasis, 84 months (12 to 180) from metastasis to death and 168 months (24 to 216) from radical prostatectomy to death. Statistically significant univariate risk factors for prostate cancer specific mortality at the time of metastasis were pain at diagnosis of metastases (p = 0.002), time from radical prostatectomy to metastasis (p = 0.024) and prostate specific antigen doubling time less than 3 months during the 24 months before metastasis (p = 0.016). Multivariable analysis demonstrated independent predictors of prostate cancer specific mortality at the time of metastasis, namely pain (HR 3.5, p = 0.003) and prostate specific antigen doubling time less than 3 months (HR 3.4, p = 0.017). Conclusions: Men treated with deferred androgen deprivation therapy for the development of metastasis after radical prostatectomy may have a long life span, 169 months after radical prostatectomy (range 24 to 216). The presence of pain and short prostate specific antigen doubling time predicted an unfavorable outcome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)156-162
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Urology
Volume179
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2008

Keywords

  • androgens
  • neoplasm metastasis
  • pain
  • prostatectomy
  • prostatic neoplasms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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