Factor VIII (FVIII) is the protein defective in the bleeding disorder hemophilia A. Approximately 5% of hemophilia A patients have normal amounts of a dysfunctional FVIII protein and are termed cross-reacting material (CRM)-positive. The majority of genetic alterations that result in CRM- positive hemophilia A are missense mutations within the A2-domain. To determine the mechanistic basis of the genetic defects within the A2-domain for FVIII function we constructed six mutations within the FVIII cDNA that were previously found in five CRM-positive hemophilia A patients (R527W, S558F, 1566T, V634A, and V634M) and one CRM-reduced hemophilia A patient (DeltaF652/3). The specific activity for each mutant secreted into the conditioned medium from transiently transfected COS-1 cells correlated with published data for the patients plasma-derived FVIII, confirming the basis of the genetic defect. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of immunoprecipitated FVIII protein radiolabeled in COS-1 cells showed that all CRM-positive mutant proteins were synthesized and secreted into the medium at rates similar to wild-type FVIII. The majority of the DeltaF652/3 mutant was defective in secretion and was degraded within the cell. All mutant FVIII proteins were susceptible to thrombin cleavage, and the A2-domain fragment from the 1566T mutant had a reduced mobility because of use of an introduced potential N-linked glycosylation site that was confirmed by N-glycanase digestion. To evaluate interaction of FVIII with factor IXa, we performed an inhibition assay using a synthetic peptide corresponding to FVIII residues 558 to 565, previously shown to be a factor IXa interaction site. The concentration of peptide required for 50% inhibition of FVIII activity (IC50) was reduced for the 1566T (800 μmol/L) and the S558F (960 mol/L) mutants compared with wild-type FVIII (> 2,000 μmol/L). N-glycanase digestion increased 1566T mutant FVIII activity and increased its IC50 for the peptide (1,400 μmol/L). In comparison to S558F, a more conservative mutant (S558A) had a sixfold increased specific activity that also correlated with an increased IC50 for the peptide. These results provided support that the defects in the 1566T and S558F FVIII molecules are caused by steric hindrance for interaction with factor IXa.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology