Males/men and females/women differ in the outcome of influenza A virus (IAV) infections, vaccination, and antiviral treatments. Both sex (i.e. biological factors) and gender (i.e. sociocultural factors) can impact exposure and severity of IAV infections as well as responses and outcomes of treatments for IAV. Greater consideration of the combined effects of sex and gender in epidemiological, clinical, and animal studies of influenza pathogenesis is needed.
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