The Interaction of Smoking Cessation Norms and Nicotine Dependence on Quit Attempts: Gender-Stratified Results for Low-Income Smokers in Baltimore, MD

Norah L. Crossnohere, Melissa Davey-Rothwell, Carl Latkin, Tuo Yen Tseng, Lauren Czaplicki, Amy Knowlton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Declines in smoking prevalence among low-income adults lag behind national samples. Understanding the influence of social context factors such as gender, and normative influence on smoking attitudes and behaviors, can inform smoking cessation interventions. Objective: This study explored how gender, smoking dependence, and cessation norms influenced the likelihood of current quit attempts among urban-dwelling, predominately African American adults. Methods: Participants answered questions about their current quit attempts, smoking dependence (heaviness of smoking index [HSI]), and cessation norms (descriptive: having friends who quit smoking; injunctive: friends disapproving of smoking) as a part of a parent study exploring social and environmental factors in tobacco use. Logistic regression stratifying by gender and adjusting for demographics examined main and interaction effects of norms and HSI on odds of having a current quit attempt. Results: Among men, having a higher smoking dependence was associated with a reduced likelihood of trying to quit (AOR = 0.30 [0.15–0.59]), but this effect was moderated by having friends who had quit smoking (AOR = 2.40 [1.20–4.78]). When accounting for the effect of friends quitting smoking, men were not influenced by friends disapproving of smoking. Among women, currently attempting to quit was predicted by neither smoking dependence nor norms. Conclusions/Importance: Cessation norms and smoking dependence influenced the likelihood of quit attempts for men, but not women, in this study. This highlights the importance of conducting gender stratification in smoking cessation research so as to better understand how social and environmental factors differently impact cessation outcomes for men and women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)424-428
Number of pages5
JournalSubstance Use and Misuse
Volume55
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 3 2020

Keywords

  • African Americans
  • Smoking cessation
  • peer influence
  • social norms
  • vulnerable populations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Health(social science)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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