Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) exhibits high diversity and complexity in China, challenging the disease surveillance and antiretroviral therapy. Between July 1, 2014 and January 30, 2017, we investigated the profiles of HIV-1 infection stages, genotype distribution and drug resistance mutations (DRMs) using plasma samples from HIV Western blot (WB) confirmed blood donors from five Chinese blood centers (Chongqing, Guangxi, Luoyang, Mianyang, and Urumqi). HIV pol regions consisted of whole protease and partial reverse transcriptase were genotyped and analyzed for DRMs. Lag-Avidity testing was performed to identify the infection stages. Of the 356 HIV-1 WB positive samples tested by Lag-avidity assay, 19.1% (68/356) were recent infections. Genotyping on 356 amplified sequences presented the subtype distributions as following: CRF07_BC (65.7%), CRF08_BC (7.3%), CRF01_AE (19.1%), B (4.2%), CRF55_01B (3.1%), CRF59_01B (0.3%) and CRF68_01B (0.3%). No significant difference in genotype distribution was observed between recent and long-term infections. 48 DRMs were identified from 43 samples, indicating a drug resistance prevalence of 12.1% (43/356), which include seven protease inhibitors (PIs) accessory DRMs (Q58E, L23I and I84M), two PIs major DRMs (M46I, M46L), seven nucleoside RT inhibitors DRMs (D67N, K70Q, K219R and M184L), and 32 non-nucleoside RT inhibitors DRMs (K103N, V179E, K238N, V179D, E138G, G190E, A98G, Y188D and E138A). In addition, we had also identified CRFs from the 01B subtype including CRF55_01B (3.1%), CRF59_01B (0.3%) and CRF68_01B (0.3%). As an important part of the continuous monitoring of HIV-1 circulating strains among blood donors, our findings were expected to contribute to the comprehensive AIDS control and development of proper diagnostics for HIV-1 in China.
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