Human survival is dependent upon the continuous delivery of Obinf2einf to each cell in the body in sufficient amounts to meet metabolic requirements, primarily for ATP generation by oxidative phosphorylation. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) regulate the transcription of thousands of genes to balance Obinf2einf supply and demand. The HIFs are negatively regulated by Obinf2einf-dependent hydrox-ylation and ubiquitination by prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) proteins and the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein. Germline mutations in the genes encoding VHL, HIF-2alpha, and PHD2 cause hereditary erythrocytosis, which is characterized by polycythemia and pulmonary hypertension and is caused by increased HIF activity. Evolutionary adaptation to life at high altitude is associated with unique genetic variants in the genes encoding HIF-2alpha and PHD2 that blunt the erythropoietic and pulmonary vascular responses to hypoxia.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||22|
|Journal||Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics|
|State||Published - Aug 31 2020|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology