The forgotten responders: The ongoing impact of 9/11 on the ground zero recovery workers

Erin C. Smith, Frederick M. Burkle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


In the years following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks (9/11; New York USA), emergency first responders began experiencing a range of physical health and psychosocial impacts. Publications documenting these tended to focus on firefighters, while emerging reports are starting to focus on other first responders, including paramedics, emergency medical technicians (EMTs), and police. The objective of this research was to explore the long-term impact on another important group of 9/11 responders, the non-emergency recovery workers who responded to the World Trade Center (WTC) site of the 9/11 terrorist attacks. In the 16 years following 9/11, Ground Zero recovery workers have been plagued by a range of long-term physical impacts, including musculoskeletal injuries, repetitive motion injuries, gait deterioration, and respiratory disorders. Psychosocial issues include posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, insomnia, support system fatigue, and addictive and risk-taking behaviors. These findings go some way to filling the current gap in the understanding on the long-term impact of 9/11 and to provide an important testimony of the forgotten responders-the Ground Zero recovery workers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)436-440
Number of pages5
JournalPrehospital and Disaster Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 1 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • 9/11
  • ground zero
  • long-term impact
  • recovery worker
  • terrorism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Emergency


Dive into the research topics of 'The forgotten responders: The ongoing impact of 9/11 on the ground zero recovery workers'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this