Purpose: We sought to evaluate the financial impact of robotic technology for partial nephrectomy (PN) and radical nephrectomy (RN) in the state of Maryland. Methods: The Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission (HSCRC) documents all acute care hospital charges data. This database was queried for patients who underwent laparoscopic or robot-Assisted RN and PN from 2008 to 2012. Total hospital charge, subcharge, and length of stay (LOS) were analyzed separately for RN and PN. Results: Overall, 2834 patients were identified. Of those, 282 were laparoscopic PN (LPN), 1078 robot-Assisted PN (RPN), 1098 laparoscopic RN (LRN), and 376 robot-Assisted RN (RRN). For PN, the total hospital charge was $19,062 for LPN and $18,255 for RPN (P=0.138), with a charge savings of $807 per case in favor of robotics. For RN, the total hospital charge was $23,391 for RRN and $18,280 for LRN (P=0.004), with a charge premium of $5111 for robotic cases. LOS was shorter for RPN compared with LPN (2.51 vs 2.99 days, P<0.0001) and for RRN compared with LRN (3.52 vs 3.98, P=0.0498). Conclusions: RPN is associated with lower hospital charges than LPN, while RRN is associated with higher hospital charges than LRN. Savings for RPN are driven by decreased room and board charge, while the premium for RRN is driven by higher operating room and supply charges. Because RRN use is increasing, the financial implications of RRN use for routine cases warrants further study.
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