Background: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are increasingly being recognized for their significant economic impact. Mozambique, like other low-income countries, suffers staggering rates of road traffic collisions. To our knowledge, this is the first study to estimate direct hospital costs of RTIs using a bottom-up, micro-costing approach in the Mozambican context. This study aims to calculate the direct, inpatient costs of RTIs in Mozambique and compare it to the financial capacity of the Mozambican public health care system. Methods: This was a retrospective, single-centre study. Charts of all patients with RTIs admitted to Maputo Central Hospital over a period of 2 months were reviewed. The costs were recorded and analysed based on direct costs, human resource costs, and overhead costs. Costs were calculated using a micro-costing approach. Results: In total, 114 patients were admitted and treated for RTIs at Maputo Central Hospital during June–July 2015. On average, the hospital cost per patient was US$ 604.28 (IQR 1033.58). Of this, 44% was related to procedural costs, 23% to diagnostic imaging costs, 17% to length-of-stay costs, 9% to medication costs, and 7% to laboratory test costs. The average annual inpatient cost of RTIs in Mozambique was almost US$ 116 million (0.8% of GDP). Conclusion: The financial burden of RTIs in Mozambique represents approximately 40% of the annual public health care budget. These results help highlight the economic impact of trauma in Mozambique and the importance of an organized trauma system to reduce such costs.
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