The families in recovery from stroke trial (FIRST): Primary study results

Thomas A. Glass, Lisa F. Berkman, Elizabeth F. Hiltunen, Karen Furie, M. Maria Glymour, Martha E. Fay, James Ware

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Scopus citations


Objective: Social support and family ties are strong predictors of functional recovery after stroke; however, development of successful psychosocial intervention programs has been difficult. This study examined whether a family-systems intervention designed to influence social support and self-efficacy affects functional outcome in older stroke patients. Methods: Two hundred ninety-one community-residing survivors of ischemic stroke or nontraumatic cerebral hemorrhage from eight acute-care hospitals and rehabilitation centers were randomized to either psychosocial intervention (PSI) or usual care (UC). PSI involved up to 16 sessions conducted in the home by a mental health worker. Functional recovery (measured by the Barthel Index [BI] at 6 months postrandomization, inability to assess functioning because of illness or death) was the primary end point. Results: Functional recovery did not differ between UC and PSI in intention-to-treat analyses. In adjusted logistic regression, the odds of being functionally independent at 6 months was 60% higher in the intervention group, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = .31). Subgroup analyses revealed that PSI may be more effective in subjects with better psychologic and cognitive functioning and who required less inpatient rehabilitation. Conclusion: This study does not provide evidence for the efficacy of psychosocial intervention to improve functional recovery in stroke. Although PSI showed greater improvement than UC, the differences were not statistically significant.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)889-897
Number of pages9
JournalPsychosomatic medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2004


  • Cerebrovascular disease
  • Outcome study
  • Randomized clinical trial
  • Social factors
  • Social support

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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