The Etiology of Autism: Pre-, Peri- and Neonatal Factors

JOSEPH PIVEN, JON SIMON, GARY A. CHASE, MARYANN WZOREK, REBECCA LANDA, JEANNE GAYLE, SUSAN FOLSTEIN

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

To examine pre-, peri-, and neonatal factors in autism using composite optimality scores. Pre-, peri-, and neonatal composite optimality scores were examined in 39 autistic subjects and 39 randomly matched sibling controls using a modification of the Gillberg Optimality Scale (Modified-GOS). Scores were based on best-estimate ratings of maternal interviews and medical records. Rules for best-estimate ratings were derived from a study of agreement between these two sources. Significant differences in optimality between autistic probands and their siblings were not present after adjustment for “maternal parity.‘’ Examination of specific variables revealed that only maternal parity differed significantly between autistic subjects and randomly matched sibling controls, reflecting an excess of first and fourth born among the autistic subjects. The findings of this study suggest that previous reports of an association between optimality and autism are aresult of failure to adjust for birth order. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 1993, 32,6:1256–1263.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1256-1263
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Volume32
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 1993

Keywords

  • autism
  • birth order
  • neonatal
  • perinatal
  • prenatal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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    PIVEN, JOSEPH., SIMON, JON., CHASE, GARY. A., WZOREK, MARYANN., LANDA, REBECCA., GAYLE, JEANNE., & FOLSTEIN, SUSAN. (1993). The Etiology of Autism: Pre-, Peri- and Neonatal Factors. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32(6), 1256-1263. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199311000-00021