The embryonic human choriocapillaris develops by hemo-vasculogenesis

Takuya Hasegawa, D. Scott McLeod, Imran A. Bhutto, Tarl Prow, Carol A. Merges, Rhonda Grebe, Gerard A. Lutty

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The purpose of this study was to characterize normal human choroidal vascular development from 6-23 weeks gestation (WG). Markers of endothelial cells (EC) (CD34, CD31, vWf), angioblasts and EC (CD39), leukocytes (CD45), erythroblasts (epsilon chain of hemoglobin, Hb-e), proliferating cells (Ki67), and VEGFR-2 were employed. At 6-7 WG, many erythroblasts were observed within islands of precursor cells in the choriocapillaris layer and others were independent from the islands. Many erythroblasts (Hb-ε+) were also positive for EC markers and/or VEGFR-2. By 8-12 WG, most of the Hb-ε cells had disappeared and vascular lumens became apparent. At 14-23 WG, some EC were proliferating on the scleral side of choriocapillaris in association with forming deeper vessels. In conclusion, embryonic choriocapillaris appears to form initially by hemo-vasculogenesis (blood vessels and blood cells form simultaneously from common precursors) while angiogenesis appears to be the mode of intermediate and large choroidal vessel development in the fetus.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2089-2100
Number of pages12
JournalDevelopmental Dynamics
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2007


  • Angiogenesis
  • Choroids
  • Hemangioblasts
  • Hemo-vasculogenesis
  • Vascular precursors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental Biology


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