A group, randomized, comparative effectiveness trial of two elementary universal preventive interventions (PAX Good Behavior Game [PAX GBG] and the integration of PAX GBG with Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies [PATHS to PAX]) was carried out in general education classrooms in 27 urban elementary schools. Ialongo et al. report on results of the trial for all students. Here, we examine the outcomes of students receiving special education services (N = 650). A linear mixed model analysis of variance (ANCOVA) was conducted with school included as a random effect to examine planned comparisons between conditions. Significant interactions were probed using the Johnson–Neyman technique. For significant and trending results, effect sizes were calculated. Results demonstrated improvement for a number of socioemotional and behavioral variables for students in either intervention, however, the integration of PATHS to PAX appeared to have the most substantial impact for students in special education. Effect sizes ranged from 0.07 to 0.50.
- randomized trial
- special education
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health