The form of rats' Pavlovian conditioned responses to visual and auditory conditioned stimuli (CSs) paired with a variety of unconditioned stimuli (USs) was examined in three experiments using direct behavioral observation techniques. In Experiment 1, the form of conditioned behavior occurring most frequently during later portions of the CS-US interval depended only on which of several appetitive USs was used, but the form of behavior occurring most frequently during early portions of the CS-US interval depended only on the nature of the CS. US-dependent behaviors resembled the response to the US, and CS-dependent behaviors resembled the original orienting response (OR) to the CS. In Experiment 2, the use of larger magnitude appetitive USs resulted in higher frequencies of US-dependent behaviors, but lower frequencies of CS-dependent behaviors in the presence of auditory and visual CSs. In Experiment 3, US-dependent conditioned behavior to auditory and visual CSs paired with shock was more frequent when high-intensity shocks were used, but CS-dependent behavior was more frequent when low-intensity shocks were used. These results suggested that Pavlovian conditioned responding may involve two independent types of behavior-one appropriate to the US and another based on the original OR to the CS.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
- Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
- Animal Science and Zoology
- Behavioral Neuroscience