The effects of hormones on sex differences in infection: From genes to behavior

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Males of many species are more susceptible than females to infections caused by parasites, fungi, bacteria, and viruses. One proximate cause of sex differences in infection is differences in endocrine-immune interactions. Specifically, males may be more susceptible to infection than females because sex steroids, specifically androgens in males and estrogens in females, modulate several aspects of host immunity. It is, however, becoming increasingly more apparent that in addition to affecting host immunity, sex steroid hormones alter genes and behaviors that influence susceptibility and resistance to infection. Thus, males may be more susceptible to infection than females not only because androgens reduce immunocompetence, but because sex steroid hormones affect disease resistance genes and behaviors that make males more susceptible to infection. Consideration of the cumulative effects of sex steroid hormones on susceptibility to infection may serve to clarify current discrepancies in the literature and offer alternative hypotheses to the view that sex steroid hormones only alter susceptibility to infection via changes in host immune function. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)627-638
Number of pages12
JournalNeuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Volume24
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2000

Fingerprint

Sex Characteristics
Hormones
Gonadal Steroid Hormones
Infection
Genes
Androgens
Immunity
Immunocompetence
Parasitic Diseases
Disease Resistance
Estrogens
Fungi
Steroids
Viruses
Bacteria

Keywords

  • Androgens
  • Bacteria
  • Disease
  • Estrogens
  • Female
  • Immunity
  • Male
  • Parasite
  • Testostero ne
  • Virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Behavioral Neuroscience

Cite this

The effects of hormones on sex differences in infection : From genes to behavior. / Klein, Sabra L.

In: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, Vol. 24, No. 6, 08.2000, p. 627-638.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{94babe04b1794b97a072951b15da3820,
title = "The effects of hormones on sex differences in infection: From genes to behavior",
abstract = "Males of many species are more susceptible than females to infections caused by parasites, fungi, bacteria, and viruses. One proximate cause of sex differences in infection is differences in endocrine-immune interactions. Specifically, males may be more susceptible to infection than females because sex steroids, specifically androgens in males and estrogens in females, modulate several aspects of host immunity. It is, however, becoming increasingly more apparent that in addition to affecting host immunity, sex steroid hormones alter genes and behaviors that influence susceptibility and resistance to infection. Thus, males may be more susceptible to infection than females not only because androgens reduce immunocompetence, but because sex steroid hormones affect disease resistance genes and behaviors that make males more susceptible to infection. Consideration of the cumulative effects of sex steroid hormones on susceptibility to infection may serve to clarify current discrepancies in the literature and offer alternative hypotheses to the view that sex steroid hormones only alter susceptibility to infection via changes in host immune function. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.",
keywords = "Androgens, Bacteria, Disease, Estrogens, Female, Immunity, Male, Parasite, Testostero ne, Virus",
author = "Klein, {Sabra L}",
year = "2000",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1016/S0149-7634(00)00027-0",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "24",
pages = "627--638",
journal = "Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews",
issn = "0149-7634",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The effects of hormones on sex differences in infection

T2 - From genes to behavior

AU - Klein, Sabra L

PY - 2000/8

Y1 - 2000/8

N2 - Males of many species are more susceptible than females to infections caused by parasites, fungi, bacteria, and viruses. One proximate cause of sex differences in infection is differences in endocrine-immune interactions. Specifically, males may be more susceptible to infection than females because sex steroids, specifically androgens in males and estrogens in females, modulate several aspects of host immunity. It is, however, becoming increasingly more apparent that in addition to affecting host immunity, sex steroid hormones alter genes and behaviors that influence susceptibility and resistance to infection. Thus, males may be more susceptible to infection than females not only because androgens reduce immunocompetence, but because sex steroid hormones affect disease resistance genes and behaviors that make males more susceptible to infection. Consideration of the cumulative effects of sex steroid hormones on susceptibility to infection may serve to clarify current discrepancies in the literature and offer alternative hypotheses to the view that sex steroid hormones only alter susceptibility to infection via changes in host immune function. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

AB - Males of many species are more susceptible than females to infections caused by parasites, fungi, bacteria, and viruses. One proximate cause of sex differences in infection is differences in endocrine-immune interactions. Specifically, males may be more susceptible to infection than females because sex steroids, specifically androgens in males and estrogens in females, modulate several aspects of host immunity. It is, however, becoming increasingly more apparent that in addition to affecting host immunity, sex steroid hormones alter genes and behaviors that influence susceptibility and resistance to infection. Thus, males may be more susceptible to infection than females not only because androgens reduce immunocompetence, but because sex steroid hormones affect disease resistance genes and behaviors that make males more susceptible to infection. Consideration of the cumulative effects of sex steroid hormones on susceptibility to infection may serve to clarify current discrepancies in the literature and offer alternative hypotheses to the view that sex steroid hormones only alter susceptibility to infection via changes in host immune function. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

KW - Androgens

KW - Bacteria

KW - Disease

KW - Estrogens

KW - Female

KW - Immunity

KW - Male

KW - Parasite

KW - Testostero ne

KW - Virus

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0033870714&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0033870714&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/S0149-7634(00)00027-0

DO - 10.1016/S0149-7634(00)00027-0

M3 - Article

C2 - 10940438

AN - SCOPUS:0033870714

VL - 24

SP - 627

EP - 638

JO - Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

JF - Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

SN - 0149-7634

IS - 6

ER -