Background Anticoagulants have been postulated to possess antitumor activity, although clinical data supporting this claim are conflicting. No definitive data exist on the clinical impact of anticoagulation therapy in patients with prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between therapeutic anticoagulant use and survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) receiving docetaxel chemotherapy. Patients and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 247 consecutive patients with mCRPC who received first-line docetaxel chemotherapy between 1998 and 2010 at a single institution. Among them, 29 patients (11.7 %) received therapeutic anticoagulation (low-molecular-weight heparin [LMWH] or warfarin) for the treatment of venous thromboembolism. Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the effect of anticoagulant use on overall survival. Results In univariate analysis, anticoagulant use was associated with improved survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.61; P =.024). Median survival was 20.9 months in the anticoagulation group versus 17.1 months in the control group (P =.024). In multivariable analysis, anticoagulant use remained a significant predictor of survival after adjusting for other baseline prognostic factors (HR, 0.49; P =.023). When each anticoagulant was considered separately in the multivariable model, LMWH remained significantly prognostic for survival (HR, 0.48; P =.035), whereas warfarin use did not. Conclusions Anticoagulant use (LMWH in particular) is an independent predictor of improved survival in men with mCRPC receiving docetaxel. These data provide the impetus to further explore the antitumor properties of anticoagulants in patients with prostate cancer and warrant validation in prospective studies.
- Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer
- Overall survival
ASJC Scopus subject areas