The effect of prior androgen synthesis inhibition on outcomes of subsequent therapy with docetaxel in patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer: Results from a retrospective analysis of a randomized phase 3 clinical trial (CALGB 90401) (Alliance)

Rahul Aggarwal, Susan Halabi, William Kevin Kelly, Daniel George, John F. Mahoney, Frederick Millard, Walter M. Stadler, Michael J. Morris, Philip Kantoff, J. Paul Monk, Michael Carducci, Eric J. Small

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND Preliminary data suggest a potential decreased benefit of docetaxel in patients with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who previously received abiraterone acetate, a novel androgen synthesis inhibitor (ASI). Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) trial 90401 (Alliance), a phase 3 trial in patients with mCRPC who received docetaxel-based chemotherapy, offered the opportunity to evaluate effect of prior ketoconazole, an earlier generation ASI, on clinical outcomes after docetaxel. METHODS In CALGB trial 90401, 1050 men with chemotherapy-naive mCRPC were randomized to receive treatment with docetaxel and prednisone that included either bevacizumab or placebo. In total, 1005 men (96%) had data available regarding prior ketoconazole therapy. The observed effects of prior ketoconazole on overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline, and the objective response rate (ORR) were assessed using proportional hazards and Poisson regression methods adjusted for validated prognostic factors and treatment arm. RESULTS Baseline characteristics between patients who did (N = 277) and did not (N = 728) receive prior ketoconazole therapy were similar. There were no statistically significant differences between patients who did and those who did not receive prior ketoconazole therapy with respect to OS (median OS, 21.1 months vs 22.3 months, respectively; stratified log-rank P =.635), PFS (median PFS, 8.1 months vs 8.6 months, respectively; stratified log-rank P =.342), the proportion achieving a decline ≥50% in PSA (61% vs 66%, respectively; relative risk, 1.09; adjusted P =.129), or ORR (39% vs 43%, respectively; relative risk, 1.11; adjusted P =.366). CONCLUSIONS As measured by OS, PFS, PSA, and the ORR, there was no evidence that prior treatment with ketoconazole had an impact on the clinical outcomes of patients with mCRPC who received subsequent docetaxel-based therapy. The current results highlight the need for prospective studies to assess for potential cross-resistance with novel ASIs and to define the optimal sequence of therapy in mCRPC. Cancer 2013;119:3636-3643.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3636-3643
Number of pages8
JournalCancer
Volume119
Issue number20
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 15 2013

Keywords

  • androgen antagonists
  • chemotherapy
  • ketoconazole
  • prostatic neoplasms
  • steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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