The effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

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Abstract

Background: An increased intake of magnesium might lower blood pressure (BP), yet evidence from clinical trials is inconsistent, perhaps as a result of small sample size or heterogeneity in study design. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials that tested the effects of magnesium supplementation on BP. Twenty trials meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. Random effects models and meta-regression methods were used to pool study results and to determine the dose-response relationship of magnesium to BP. Results: The 20 studies included 14 of hypertensive and 6 of normotensive persons totaling 1220 participants. The doses of magnesium ranged from 10 to 40 mmol/day (median, 15.4 mmol/day). Magnesium supplementation resulted in only a small overall reduction in BP. The pooled net estimates of BP change (95% confidence interval [CI]) were -0.6 (-2.2 to 1.0) mm Hg for systolic BP and -0.8 (-1.9 to 0.4) mm Hg for diastolic BP. However, there was an apparent dose-dependent effect of magnesium, with reductions of 4.3 mm Hg systolic BP (95% CI 6.3 to 2.2; P <.001) and of 2.3 mm Hg diastolic BP (95% CI 4.9 to 0.0; P = .09) for each 10 mmol/day increase in magnesium dose. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis detected dose-dependent BP reductions from magnesium supplementation. However, adequately powered trials with sufficiently high doses of magnesium supplements need to be performed to confirm this relationship.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)691-696
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Hypertension
Volume15
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 2002

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Magnesium
Meta-Analysis
Randomized Controlled Trials
Blood Pressure
Confidence Intervals
Sample Size
Clinical Trials

Keywords

  • Blood pressure
  • Magnesium supplements
  • Meta-analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

@article{d4d6d6a077014bf4b2ed2dd8ef5d33bf,
title = "The effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials",
abstract = "Background: An increased intake of magnesium might lower blood pressure (BP), yet evidence from clinical trials is inconsistent, perhaps as a result of small sample size or heterogeneity in study design. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials that tested the effects of magnesium supplementation on BP. Twenty trials meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. Random effects models and meta-regression methods were used to pool study results and to determine the dose-response relationship of magnesium to BP. Results: The 20 studies included 14 of hypertensive and 6 of normotensive persons totaling 1220 participants. The doses of magnesium ranged from 10 to 40 mmol/day (median, 15.4 mmol/day). Magnesium supplementation resulted in only a small overall reduction in BP. The pooled net estimates of BP change (95{\%} confidence interval [CI]) were -0.6 (-2.2 to 1.0) mm Hg for systolic BP and -0.8 (-1.9 to 0.4) mm Hg for diastolic BP. However, there was an apparent dose-dependent effect of magnesium, with reductions of 4.3 mm Hg systolic BP (95{\%} CI 6.3 to 2.2; P <.001) and of 2.3 mm Hg diastolic BP (95{\%} CI 4.9 to 0.0; P = .09) for each 10 mmol/day increase in magnesium dose. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis detected dose-dependent BP reductions from magnesium supplementation. However, adequately powered trials with sufficiently high doses of magnesium supplements need to be performed to confirm this relationship.",
keywords = "Blood pressure, Magnesium supplements, Meta-analysis",
author = "Jee, {Sun H A} and Miller, {Edgar R} and Eliseo Guallar and Vikesh Singh and Lawrence Appel and Klag, {Michael John}",
year = "2002",
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language = "English (US)",
volume = "15",
pages = "691--696",
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T1 - The effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure

T2 - A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

AU - Jee, Sun H A

AU - Miller, Edgar R

AU - Guallar, Eliseo

AU - Singh, Vikesh

AU - Appel, Lawrence

AU - Klag, Michael John

PY - 2002

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N2 - Background: An increased intake of magnesium might lower blood pressure (BP), yet evidence from clinical trials is inconsistent, perhaps as a result of small sample size or heterogeneity in study design. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials that tested the effects of magnesium supplementation on BP. Twenty trials meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. Random effects models and meta-regression methods were used to pool study results and to determine the dose-response relationship of magnesium to BP. Results: The 20 studies included 14 of hypertensive and 6 of normotensive persons totaling 1220 participants. The doses of magnesium ranged from 10 to 40 mmol/day (median, 15.4 mmol/day). Magnesium supplementation resulted in only a small overall reduction in BP. The pooled net estimates of BP change (95% confidence interval [CI]) were -0.6 (-2.2 to 1.0) mm Hg for systolic BP and -0.8 (-1.9 to 0.4) mm Hg for diastolic BP. However, there was an apparent dose-dependent effect of magnesium, with reductions of 4.3 mm Hg systolic BP (95% CI 6.3 to 2.2; P <.001) and of 2.3 mm Hg diastolic BP (95% CI 4.9 to 0.0; P = .09) for each 10 mmol/day increase in magnesium dose. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis detected dose-dependent BP reductions from magnesium supplementation. However, adequately powered trials with sufficiently high doses of magnesium supplements need to be performed to confirm this relationship.

AB - Background: An increased intake of magnesium might lower blood pressure (BP), yet evidence from clinical trials is inconsistent, perhaps as a result of small sample size or heterogeneity in study design. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials that tested the effects of magnesium supplementation on BP. Twenty trials meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. Random effects models and meta-regression methods were used to pool study results and to determine the dose-response relationship of magnesium to BP. Results: The 20 studies included 14 of hypertensive and 6 of normotensive persons totaling 1220 participants. The doses of magnesium ranged from 10 to 40 mmol/day (median, 15.4 mmol/day). Magnesium supplementation resulted in only a small overall reduction in BP. The pooled net estimates of BP change (95% confidence interval [CI]) were -0.6 (-2.2 to 1.0) mm Hg for systolic BP and -0.8 (-1.9 to 0.4) mm Hg for diastolic BP. However, there was an apparent dose-dependent effect of magnesium, with reductions of 4.3 mm Hg systolic BP (95% CI 6.3 to 2.2; P <.001) and of 2.3 mm Hg diastolic BP (95% CI 4.9 to 0.0; P = .09) for each 10 mmol/day increase in magnesium dose. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis detected dose-dependent BP reductions from magnesium supplementation. However, adequately powered trials with sufficiently high doses of magnesium supplements need to be performed to confirm this relationship.

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