Purpose: Aspirin is often stopped prior to percutaneous nephrolithotomy due to concern about the surgical bleeding risk. There is evidence that discontinuing aspirin perioperatively increases thromboembolic events and continuing it may be safe. We assessed the effect of continuing low dose aspirin through percutaneous nephrolithotomy and its effect on surgical and safety outcomes. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 285 consecutive percutaneous nephrolithotomies performed between 2012 and 2015 at our institution. We compared outcomes and complications in patients who continued 81 mg aspirin daily to those in patients not receiving aspirin. Results: A total of 67 patients (24.5%) were maintained on low dose aspirin and 207 (75.5%) were not on aspirin. The aspirin group was older (66 vs 52 years), included more tobacco users (58.2% vs 31.4%) and had a higher ASA® (American Society of Anesthesiologists®) score (2.9 vs 2.5, all p <0.001). There was no difference in mean S.T.O.N.E. (size, topography [stone location], obstruction, number of stones and evaluation of HU) score (7.6 vs 7.7, p = 0.71) or blood loss (44 vs 54 ml, p = 0.151). There was no difference in residual stone fragment size, including 0 to 2 mm in 65.3% vs 61.4% of aspirin vs no aspirin cases, 3 to 4 mm in 19.4% vs 16.2% and greater than 4 mm in 15.3% vs 22.4% (p = 0.407). Length of stay and the change in hemoglobin, hematocrit and creatinine were similar. There was no difference in the readmission rate (14.9% vs 12.6%, p = 0.618) or the total complication rate (34.4% vs 26.6%, p = 0.221). There was also no difference in the number of major complications (10.4% vs 5.8%, p = 0.193), bleeding complications (3.0% vs 2.9%, p = 0.971) and the transfusion rate (1.5% vs 1.0%, p = 0.57). Conclusions: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy appears effective and safe in patients who continue low dose aspirin perioperatively.
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