The economic and operational value of using drones to transport vaccines

Leila A. Haidari, Shawn T. Brown, Marie Ferguson, Emily Bancroft, Marie Spiker, Allen Wilcox, Ramya Ambikapathi, Vidya Sampath, Diana L. Connor, Bruce Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background Immunization programs in low and middle income countries (LMICs) face numerous challenges in getting life-saving vaccines to the people who need them. As unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology has progressed in recent years, potential use cases for UAVs have proliferated due to their ability to traverse difficult terrains, reduce labor, and replace fleets of vehicles that require costly maintenance. Methods Using a HERMES-generated simulation model, we performed sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of using an unmanned aerial system (UAS) for routine vaccine distribution under a range of circumstances reflecting variations in geography, population, road conditions, and vaccine schedules. We also identified the UAV payload and UAS costs necessary for a UAS to be favorable over a traditional multi-tiered land transport system (TMLTS). Results Implementing the UAS in the baseline scenario improved vaccine availability (96% versus 94%) and produced logistics cost savings of $0.08 per dose administered as compared to the TMLTS. The UAS maintained cost savings in all sensitivity analyses, ranging from $0.05 to $0.21 per dose administered. The minimum UAV payloads necessary to achieve cost savings over the TMLTS, for the various vaccine schedules and UAS costs and lifetimes tested, were substantially smaller (up to 0.40 L) than the currently assumed UAV payload of 1.5 L. Similarly, the maximum UAS costs that could achieve savings over the TMLTS were greater than the currently assumed costs under realistic flight conditions. Conclusion Implementing a UAS could increase vaccine availability and decrease costs in a wide range of settings and circumstances if the drones are used frequently enough to overcome the capital costs of installing and maintaining the system. Our computational model showed that major drivers of costs savings from using UAS are road speed of traditional land vehicles, the number of people needing to be vaccinated, and the distance that needs to be traveled.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4062-4067
Number of pages6
JournalVaccine
Volume34
Issue number34
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 25 2016

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land transportation
Vaccines
Cost Savings
Economics
cost effectiveness
vaccines
Costs and Cost Analysis
economics
administered dose
roads
Appointments and Schedules
Immunization Programs
Geography
geography
unmanned aerial vehicles
simulation models
immunization
labor
income
flight

Keywords

  • Immunization
  • Simulation modeling
  • UAV

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • veterinary(all)
  • Molecular Medicine

Cite this

The economic and operational value of using drones to transport vaccines. / Haidari, Leila A.; Brown, Shawn T.; Ferguson, Marie; Bancroft, Emily; Spiker, Marie; Wilcox, Allen; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Sampath, Vidya; Connor, Diana L.; Lee, Bruce.

In: Vaccine, Vol. 34, No. 34, 25.07.2016, p. 4062-4067.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Haidari, LA, Brown, ST, Ferguson, M, Bancroft, E, Spiker, M, Wilcox, A, Ambikapathi, R, Sampath, V, Connor, DL & Lee, B 2016, 'The economic and operational value of using drones to transport vaccines', Vaccine, vol. 34, no. 34, pp. 4062-4067. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.06.022
Haidari LA, Brown ST, Ferguson M, Bancroft E, Spiker M, Wilcox A et al. The economic and operational value of using drones to transport vaccines. Vaccine. 2016 Jul 25;34(34):4062-4067. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.06.022
Haidari, Leila A. ; Brown, Shawn T. ; Ferguson, Marie ; Bancroft, Emily ; Spiker, Marie ; Wilcox, Allen ; Ambikapathi, Ramya ; Sampath, Vidya ; Connor, Diana L. ; Lee, Bruce. / The economic and operational value of using drones to transport vaccines. In: Vaccine. 2016 ; Vol. 34, No. 34. pp. 4062-4067.
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abstract = "Background Immunization programs in low and middle income countries (LMICs) face numerous challenges in getting life-saving vaccines to the people who need them. As unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology has progressed in recent years, potential use cases for UAVs have proliferated due to their ability to traverse difficult terrains, reduce labor, and replace fleets of vehicles that require costly maintenance. Methods Using a HERMES-generated simulation model, we performed sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of using an unmanned aerial system (UAS) for routine vaccine distribution under a range of circumstances reflecting variations in geography, population, road conditions, and vaccine schedules. We also identified the UAV payload and UAS costs necessary for a UAS to be favorable over a traditional multi-tiered land transport system (TMLTS). Results Implementing the UAS in the baseline scenario improved vaccine availability (96{\%} versus 94{\%}) and produced logistics cost savings of $0.08 per dose administered as compared to the TMLTS. The UAS maintained cost savings in all sensitivity analyses, ranging from $0.05 to $0.21 per dose administered. The minimum UAV payloads necessary to achieve cost savings over the TMLTS, for the various vaccine schedules and UAS costs and lifetimes tested, were substantially smaller (up to 0.40 L) than the currently assumed UAV payload of 1.5 L. Similarly, the maximum UAS costs that could achieve savings over the TMLTS were greater than the currently assumed costs under realistic flight conditions. Conclusion Implementing a UAS could increase vaccine availability and decrease costs in a wide range of settings and circumstances if the drones are used frequently enough to overcome the capital costs of installing and maintaining the system. Our computational model showed that major drivers of costs savings from using UAS are road speed of traditional land vehicles, the number of people needing to be vaccinated, and the distance that needs to be traveled.",
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