The echocardiogram of the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve (ECHO) was compared to hemodynamic and cineroentgenographic data to evaluate its accuracy in timing mitral valve (MV) opening and closure, and to validate it as an indicator of MV motion. The ECHO, high speed cineroentgenography at 250 frames/sec, and/or measurement of intracardiac pressures allowed accurate timing of the events of MV motion in dogs on right heart bypass. The intersection of left ventricular and left atrial pressures in early diastole preceded the onset of rapid anterior motion of the ECHO (D' point) by 17 to 33 ± 7.6 msec; r=0.98. The onset of left ventricular systole occurred before the termination of final rapid posterior motion of the ECHO in end diastole (Co point) by 25 ± 10 msec; r=0.96. Radiopaque clips were attached to the free edges of both leaflets of the MV. Cineroentgenographically determined plots of clip distance from the ultrasound transducer were morphologically similar to the simultaneously recorded ECHO. A delay of 23 ± 3 (0 to 40) msec was observed in the ECHO peaks of diastolic anterior excursion compared to clip motion. Contrast medium advances beyond the free edges of MV leaflets mixing with left ventricular blood 43 ± 3 msec after initial separation. These cineroentgenographic studies elucidate nonuniformity of leaflet motion responsible for ECHO delays. Thus, ECHO D' and Co correlate well with hemodynamic indicators of MV opening and closure. However, ECHO motion, although qualitatively similar, is unpredictably delayed compared to cineroentgenography of clips on the MV free edge. Since the ECHO correlates well with hemodynamic indices of MV opening and closure, this noninvasive technique can be used as a reference in the timing of intracardiac events and in the determination of systolic and diastolic time intervals.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)