The effectiveness of the late phase of ischemic preconditioning (PC) in protecting against myocardial infarction and the concomitant contractile dysfunction after sustained ischemia remains unclear. The early and late phases of PC have not been compared using the same protocol in the same experimental model; furthermore, the late phase of PC has not been assessed in the conscious state in a large animal preparation. The goal of this study was to directly compare the effects of early and late PC on myocardial infarct size and postischemic dysfunction in chronically instrumented, conscious pigs. Four groups of pigs were subjected to a 40-minute coronary occlusion followed by 3 days of reperfusion. Group 1 (n=7) served as control. Group 2 (n=6) was subjected to ten 2-minute occlusion/2-minute reperfusion cycles 25 minutes before the 40-minute occlusion (early Pc). Groups 3 (n=7) and 4 (n=4) were subjected to 10 and 25 cycles, respectively, of 2-minute occlusion/2-minute reperfusion 24 hours before the 40-minute occlusion (late Pc). Infarct size averaged 45.1 ±5.9%, of the region at risk in control pigs, was reduced by 79% (to 9.4±3.2%) in group 2, but did not differ in groups 3 (33.3 ±4.8%) and 4 (38.8±8.2%) versus group 1. Power analysis demonstrated that there was an 80% probability of detecting a 40% decrease in infarct size in groups 3 and 4 versus group 1. The recovery of systolic wall thickening (measured with ultrasonic crystals) after the 40-minute occlusion was poor in groups 1, 3, and 4 but markedly enhanced in group 2 throughout the 3 days of reperfusion; this beneficial effect could have been due to limitation of infarct size, alleviation of stunning, or both. Thus, a series of ten 2-minute coronary occlusions had a profound (≃80%) early infarct- limiting effect, which was associated with a marked functional benefit. This protection, however, disappeared 24 hours later and could not be reinstituted by increasing the number of PC coronary occlusions to 25. The incidence and duration of ventricular tachycardia after reperfusion was not changed by either early or late PC; no conclusions could be drawn regarding ventricular fibrillation or ischemia-induced ventricular tachycardia, since these arrhythmias did not occur in control animals. Taken together, the present results demonstrate striking differences between the early and late effects of PC: In conscious swine subjected to a sustained coronary occlusion, a PC protocol that induces powerful protection during the early phase of PC fails to induce any protection during the late phase, indicating either that a late protective effect of PC does not exist or that, if it exists, it must be weaker than the early protective effect.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine