A survey of the dog genome sequence (6.22 million sequence reads; 1.5× coverage) demonstrates the power of sample sequencing for comparative analysis of mammalian genomes and the generation of species-specific resources. More than 650 million base pairs (>25%) of dog sequence align uniquely to the human genome, including fragments of putative orthologs for 18,473 of 24,567 annotated human genes. Mutation rates, conserved synteny, repeat content, and phylogeny can be compared among human, mouse, and dog. A variety of polymorphic elements are identified that will be valuable for mapping the genetic basis of diseases and traits in the dog.
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