The dimensions of change in therapeutic community treatment instrument

Maria Orlando, Suzanne L. Wenzel, Pat Ebener, Michael C. Edwards, Wallace Mandell, Kirsten Becker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


In this article, the authors describe the refinement and preliminary evaluation of the Dimensions of Change in Therapeutic Community Treatment Instrument (DCI), a measure of treatment process. In Study 1, a 99-item DCI, administered to a cross-sectional sample of substance abuse clients (N = 990), was shortened to 54 items on the basis of results from confirmatory factor analyses and item response theory invariance tests. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analyses of the 54-item DCI, completed by a longitudinal cohort of 993 clients, established and validated an 8-factor solution across 2 subpopulations (adults and adolescents) and 2 time points (treatment entry and 30-days postentry). The results of the 2 studies are encouraging and support use of the 54-item DCI as a tool to measure treatment process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)118-122
Number of pages5
JournalPsychological Assessment
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2006
Externally publishedYes



  • Instrument development
  • substance use
  • Therapeutic community
  • Treatment process

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Applied Psychology

Cite this

Orlando, M., Wenzel, S. L., Ebener, P., Edwards, M. C., Mandell, W., & Becker, K. (2006). The dimensions of change in therapeutic community treatment instrument. Psychological Assessment, 18(1), 118-122.